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Transcript of Asian Culture
Brendan Peo Asia History -Because there are such diverse populations within this ethnic group it must be broken down into subgroups. The historical contexts of these groups are unique and are best covered separately.
-The most culturally diverse minority- the fastest growing in the United States- envelope 60 ethnic groups: China, Japan, Korea, Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal Family Structure China Upbringing In Chinese, Korean, and a majority of Asian Cultures, upbringing and "child rearing" fall into the responsibilities of the mother.
Children are expected to be fully educated.
Males typically do not raise the children, however, will play an influence in teaching them crafts and skills related to professions (as they are older).
Children are expected to contribute to chores and assisting their mother at a very young age. Educational Beliefs Religious Beliefs Health and Healing Lifelong respect for knowledge, wisdom, intelligence, and love of learning
Confucian teachings emphasize moral aspects of education
Parents assume responsibility for ensuring a good education
High value placed on academics
Children fulfill responsibility and obligation to family through academic achievement
Excelling brings honor to family and increases social status Korean
Also practice Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism Chinese
Ancestry Worship Southeast Asian
Influenced by mixture of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism
Observe astrology, fortune telling, omens, and natural signs
-China is considered the mother country in the continent, with a civilization originated over 4,000 years ago- the epicenter of the “Middle Kingdom”
-Middle Kingdom called Tianxia- “all under heaven”
-Tianxia represents the Chinese culture and morals
-First round of immigration to the United States: late 1840s
-Inspired by the Californian Gold Rush
-China had been plagued by overcrowding, droughts, widespread famine, economic depression, civil wars.
-They had originally planned on staying in the United States 3-5 years to prosper from the gold discoveries and return home to China with new found wealth.
-Most were not successful and had to attempt existing within America.
-In America at the time, economy and job opportunities decreased. Chinese competing with Americans for jobs, increased anti-Chinese sentiments. Korean Americans:
-Dynasty Rule- the last Dynast was the Yi Dynasty from 1392-1910.
-1910-Japan takes over in effort to eliminate Korean culture.
-Increased national pride and drive for independence
-1945: Liberation from Japanese at the end of World War II.
-Political Zones from troop occupations (Soviet Union, United Nations) contributed to the Korean War (1950-1953).
-Divided North Korea and South Korea
- First wave of Immigration: 1903-1905
-Hawaii (served as a Haven)
-Second wave: 1945-1964
-Quick assimilation in second generations created major strains on relationships and relatability.
-Third Wave: catalyst: Immigration Act of 1965
-1970-1990: 30,000 Koreans entered the United States
-Emergence as culturally diverse from Asian subgroups
-Tendency for “downward occupational mobility”
-Culture clashes with minority groups
-Strained relationships between North and South Korea, continue to the relationship between the United States and North Korea. Southeast Asian Americans
Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Burma, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand
-Noted as being comprised of refugee populations- Southeast Asian Refugees
-Extreme diversity in populations
-Plagued by civil wars, famine, disease, economic failure, and take-overs
-Emigration- escaping conditions- “tragedies of epic proportions”
-War rescues promoted immigration, as evacuations from Vietnam, during and post-conflict – by air, land, and boats
-1979-Orderly Departure Program-
-Refugee Act of 1980
-1989- Comprehensive Plan of Action- closing of refugee camps in Southeast Asia
-2 million fled Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia- 1 million settling in the United States
-Lower rates of economic success in the US were not typical to precedents set- as assistance was provided
-As a result of traumatic backgrounds, Post-traumatic Stress Disorders and related symptoms, depressions and anxiety, were prevalent.
-Cultural traditions were less preserved, while stereotypes remained.
-Diverse economic success persisted. Health Beliefs-
-Based on Taoism- yin and yang
-5 elements must be in accord
-the Yin: “the passive or negative female force that includes the moon, earth,
water, evil, poverty and sadness and produces cold, darkness, emptiness, contraction, and downward movement.”
-the Yang: “the active or positive male force that includes the sun, heaven, fire, goodness, wealth and joy, and produces warmth, light, fullness, expansion, and upward movement.”
-Traditional Chinese medicine divides the body according to the Yin and Yang. Yin body parts are surface body parts and selected internal organs. Yang body parts are represented in visceral, essential organs.
-Illnesses are diagnosed by hot and cold classifications- the causes are either from cold sources (Yin) or hot sources (Yang)
-Body processes are affected by Yin and Yang- and sickness is caused by any deficiencies in the process.
-Psychological and physical issues are not differentiated- they go hand in hand- all issues are struggles to balance yin and yang.
-Illness can be attributed to supernatural causes, as multiple souls can be believed to be in the body.
-Because of the emphasis on yin and yang balance, and presence of souls, many practices call for ritualistic healing experiences
-Spiritual views of illness are addressed by religious leaders.
-Ayurvedic medicine: diagnose by processing the body
-Traditional Chinese medicine is critical of western medicines thorough, extensive exams Health and Healing -Herbal medicine
-Combination herbal medicine from tradition concurrently with prescribed medication
-Therapeutic massage, acupuncture, acupressure done in accordance with hot and cold approaches
-Diet matters, especially during prenatal care- in accordance with hot-cold foods- usually hot first then cold
-Causation: viewed as a stigma related to adherence of tradition.
-failure to follow prescribed diet
-dietary and nutritional advice based on traditions can actually increase fetal harm
-Taboos during pregnancy
-Belief in a higher power punishing for sins of the parents and ancestors Health and Healing -School-aged diagnoses come later as parenting styles are criticized first as the cause of behavior deviating from the expected norm.
-Children are often assumed to eventually outgrow disabilities by their parents.
-Families are often embarrassed and ashamed, as it comes with a stigma based on their performance- they are in essence the direct cause.
-Parents worry and grieve the expected academic and occupational success they wanted for their children.
-Information and support are provided, with diverse levels of acceptance across cultures. Chinese Americans Chinese Americans -Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882- a border patrol which did not allow the entry of Chinese Laborers and families into the United States
-Within 40 years of the Chinese Exclusion Act, all Asian immigrants were banned.
-1943: Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed
-US ally in World War II
-Chinese groups that remained faced constant hardships in daily life
-Shift in occupation
-Chinatowns developed as a microcosm of cultural unity, with a focus on tradition. Chinese Americans -1965 Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments: 105 to 20,000
-1965: Second Wave of Immigration
-California and New York
-1979- China limits
-Chinese immigrants focus shifted to more of an opportunity quest in the US, for economic and educational success
-Increased adoption of Chinese Infants: Female
-Adoptive parents educate children on their culture
-Metropolitan areas, meet needs of skilled and unskilled workers
-Stereotyping remained… Eldest Male was the head of the family.
Pre-Communist beliefs that males were to be dominant figure in family.
Woman were lower class/ expected to produce males.
Mao Zedong (1893-1926) condemned traditional beliefs on woman.
Today, Woman and men are expected to take shared responsibility in raising children. Family Structure Korea China: Social customs and information about today's china. (2009). Retrieved from http://secondchina.com/Learning_Modules/SOC/content/SOC_family_structures.html References Family structure is rigid in Korea.
Males are the breadwinner and provider.
Mom traditionally stays at home and looks after the children, focusing on their education, and usually acting as the disciplinarian.
Confucianism stresses the importance of education in the moral development of an individual.
Needs of the family are more crucial then of the individual. "One Child" Policy Exists in URBAN areas in China.
Restricts couples to having one child.
Exemptions include multiples (twins), foreigners living in China, Rural Couples. "For a prosperous, powerful nation and a happy family, please practice family planning. Teaching english abroad: Korean. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.eslstarter.com/korean-culture-and-customs.php