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The Civil Rights Movement
Transcript of The Civil Rights Movement
Sparked by Rosa Park's arrest for not surrendering her bus seat to a white passenger
MLK Jr. was a leader of the boycott
Lasted 13 months; Result: Supreme Court ruled segregation on buses violated 14th amendment
Presidents of the
Supreme Court &
Earl Warren Court established during Brown v. Board of Education
Pushed for passage of many Civil Rights laws - focused on greater equality
The Movement Shifts
After several years, black advocates became frustrated with the slow advancement of the movement.
Shift from civil disobedience to black power - changing goals & processes
- ex: Malcolm X, Black Panther Party, etc.
The Movement Expands
Women's Liberation Movement
economic & social equality for women
Title IX offered more educational opportunities for women
Important people: Betty Friedan
Many issues addressed by Truman set precedents for later civil rights legislation.
During 1st term, proposed Civil Rights laws that did not pass.
1948: Desegregated armed forces (Executive Order 9981)
The Civil Rights Movement
The Little Rock Nine
Brown v. Board of Education ordered desegregation of public schools
Many schools in south delayed desegregation
Arkansas: Gov. Orval Faubus ordered National Guard to surround Central HS to keep 9 African American students from entering.
"Little Rock Nine" kept out of white schools until Supreme Court ordered immediate integration
President Eisenhower sent fed. troops to protect them
Southern Leaders Who Pushed for Status Quo
Lester Maddox: restaurant owner who sold his restaurant rather than admit African Americans
George Wallace: Alabama governor who refused admittance of two A.A. students to University of Alabama
Congressional Bloc of Southern Democrats: Democrats in Congress to fight civil rights legislation
Freedom Rides, 1961
Interracial groups that rode buses in the South
Meant to test whether cities were complying with the Supreme Court's ruling to desegregate public transportation
Riders often risked violence & even death
MLK jr. & His leadership
1950s: becomes leader of Civil Rights movement during Bus Boycott
Believed in non-violent, civil disobedience - if the government passed an unjust law, people should oppose it
MLK Jr. was arrested during Birmingham march.
Wrote "Letter from a Birmingham Jail" where he explained why people should be patient but firm in using civil disobedience
March on Washington
Where: Washington DC
When: August 1963
Why?: pressure Congress to pass the new Civil Rights bill that was before them.
250,000 people attended the march
MLK, Jr. gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech; met with JFK.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Civil Rights Act of 1957: meant to increase A.A. voting in the South.
Sent federal troops to protect black students when states refused to desegregate.
Established the Civil Rights Commission.
John F. Kennedy
Helps get MLK Jr. out of jail after his arrest
Concerned about getting support from Southern Democrats in election of 1960
Still pushes for support of Civil Rights laws
Assassinated before he could do much for Civil Rights
Lyndon B. Johnson
Civil Rights Act of 1964: "most significant piece of legislation since Reconstruction"
- established equal employment opportunity,
prohibited discrimination based on race
Voting Rights Act, 1965
- ended literacy tests
- focus: get A.A. registered to vote!
Affirmative Action: institutions now required to recruit minority candidates
Civil Rights Act, 1968
- called for equal opportunity in
economic & social equality for Mexican-Americans
focus on poor farmer rights
Important people: Hector P. Garcia, Cesar Chavez, Delores Huerta
American Indian Movement
wanted to encourage respect for N.A. culture
Early Events of the Civil Rights Movement
Birmingham March, 1963
Birmingham one of the most segregated cities in the south.
Peaceful march begins and is met by violent retaliation.
Police officers use attack dogs and high pressure water hoses on protestors
Violence is televised nationally - sparks outrage.
1947: Jackie Robinson becomes the first black baseball player in the major leagues. Other professional sports begin accepting black players shortly after.
1948: President Truman issues EO 9981 to desegregate the armed forces.
1954: Brown v. Board of Education rules that segregation in public schools is not equal.
Argues that the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment is violated, orders desegregation of schools.
Important Court Cases!
Mendez v. Westminster ISD - Segregation of children of a group was illegal without a special state law requiring it.
Delgado v. Bastrop - Segregation of Mexican-American children was illegal in Texas.
Hernandez v. Texas - Ruled that Mexican-Americans, though not a separate race, were still entitled as a class to protection under the 14th Amendment.
White v. Regester - required single member voting districts so local minority groups could elect their own reps.
Edgewood ISD v. Kirby - required changes in school finance to increase funding for poorer districts.