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Qa Asuncion

on 28 July 2015

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Controlled composition model
(How is writing actually produced?)

The insights of process-based approach research began and impact the teaching writing of NES and ELL.

The 1960s
Mid 1960s
Process-based Approach
Focused on the process, the content
Serves today as an umbrella term for many types of writing course

Monday, May 5, 2015
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Product approach
1. Building background knowledge
The Teaching of ESL Writing in North America
Focus on form => focus on the writer (the mid 1970)
A focus on content-based instruction (the mid 1980)
A focus on a reader- dominated approach

Prior to mid 1960s
Was the model for teaching composition to NES
Focused on evaluating student essays
Centered on the written product

Dominated in esl composition teaching in North America
Served the learners primary as reinforcement of language rules
Used the writing tasks controlled in order to reduce errors

The Late 1960s
Janet Emig (1971)
Concluded that the writers do not produce text in the traditional paradigm outlined
Pioneered the think aloud procedure for collecting information about students writing processes

These multiple approaches to teaching writing coexist.
Teachers need to have a solid scholarly training to develop their own approach to the teaching of writing.

2. The Writing Curriculum
Placement consideration
EFL writing courses have a number of different classes at various levels.
Scoring writing placement tests is complex and time-procedure.
Teachers can score placement essays using a global holistic scale.
(e.g. the six-point scale for TOEFL test of written English, 100-point ESL English composition profile)

3. The Writing Class
Syllabus Design
Syllabus design should be taken into account curricular goals and the particular students the teacher will face.
Teachers need to consider the aspects of course planning:
1. How much students are expected to complete during the term
2. What timelines and deadlines are working on and completing papers
3. How many of the formal writing assignments will be done in class
4. What aspects of the composing process will be presented
5. What aspects of English grammar and syntax
6. What will be seen to constitute progress in acquiring improved writing skills as the term moves along
7. How much reading will be covered
8. How the student’s grade or a decision of credit/ no credit will be designed
The teacher uses the syllabus to announce to students what he/ she sees as important to the course as well as what is important to good writing.

Techniques for getting started
The Pre-Writing Stage: prior to actual production of a working text

Strategies for Getting Started with a Writing Task
To share students’ collective knowledge to a particular subject
A group exercise

To produce a lengthy list of all possible main ideas and subcategories that come to mind at hand
An individual activity
To place a keyword or central idea in the center of a page and to jot down all of the free-associations triggered by the subject matter
To write for a specified period of time without taking students’ pen from the page
Using Readings in the Writing Class
Promotes improvement in writing proficiency
Provides input that helps students develop awareness of-
>Particular stylistic choices
>Grammatical features
>Method of development
>Markers, cohesion and coherence, etc.
Reading can be problematic if teacher uses the topic of the readings to turn a generic writing course into a class of the subject matter area of the readings and loses sight of the focus on improvement of writing.

Prepared by: Ms. Quelby Ann R. Baccay
Establishing Curriculum Principles
Students’ skill levels will determine to a large extent the scope of writing activities students are able to undertake once they are placed into classes.

Writing activities that involve a variety of grammatical manipulations, the imitation of models constructed for teaching purposes, preparation of short texts using material supplied to the student writer, and practice in self-expression for its own sake certainly serve a function in helping students acquire familiarity with the nature of English-language texts and in laying the groundwork for more complex and writing tasks to follow.

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