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Copy of Sociology: "Philippine Values"
Transcript of Copy of Sociology: "Philippine Values"
Smooth Interpersonal Relationships (SIR)
Frank Lynch, S.J., an anthropologist, defined SIR as: “…a facility of getting along with others in such a way as to avoid outward signs of conflict, glum or sour looks, harsh words, open disagreement, or physical violence.”
SIR is based on an assumption that good relationships are without conflict and irritation.
Social acceptance – refers to the way of life of Filipinos to be acknowledged or accepted by the society. It continues to be a prime traditional value in the Philippine society. It is an important Filipino need which depends on the maintenance of SIR.
“VALERE” (Latin) which means strong and vigorous
Important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by the members of a culture about what is good or bad and desirable or undesirable. Values have major influence on a person's behavior and attitude and serve as broad guidelines in all situations.
Diaz, Mariel Faustine
Gotico, Precious Rae
“When people are divided in many ways, how may harmony, or at least the appearance of harmony, be maintained?”
Ways to preserve SIR
the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant; also : the expression so substituted (Merriam-Webster Dictionary)
Filipinos employ euphemistic language in the desire to please and to avoid hurting others
To Filipinos, agreeableness is preferred to accuracy; tact is more important than fact.
One appears top be saying yes when actually meaning no.
is the willingness to be one with the group in its opinions and decisions.
a prominent person or “middleman" is a way of avoiding personal confrontations to avoid embarrassment or uncomfortable feelings.
Spanish word which means self –love; a sense of self-esteem or self respect that prevents a person from swallowing his pride.
Filipinos learn to be considerate of the feeling of others since any expression of disagreement may hurt one’s amor propio.
In a society less concerned about amor propio, the frank exchange of differing views is seen as nothing personal, hence not a reason for animosity.
Negative effects of putting emphasis on SIR
Misunderstanding – caused by concealing differences in opinion through the use of euphemisms.
Emphasis on shame rather on guilt – because the concern for amor propio is ‘other-directed’.
Shame is a social sanction imposed on the individual by others.
‘Other-directed’ person- has very little self confidence because the expected or desired behavior can change with time and place.
- He/she constantly wonders and is sensible to whatever he/she does. “Will I incur hiya/shame?”
Inner-directed’ person- has internalized definite convictions of right and wrong and is not swayed by social pressure.
Guilt is an internalized sanction that punishes one’s failure to follow one’s ideals.
But sometimes the temptation to please the crowd rather than follow one’s ideal arises
Operational Features of Values
VALUE CHANGE AND PERSISTENCE
VALUE LIMITATIONS AND POTENTIALS
FEMALE VERSUS MALE RESPONSIBILITY
Status Rather Than Function
Status – one’s position in society
Function – one’s role in the society
High status imposes both privilege and responsibility.
Privilege – reward for seeing that an important task is properly performed
+A person of high status, may focus on privilege rather than duty. Similarly, his/her subordinates may regard him/her primarily as one gaining privilege more than as one who gets the job done.
Status is risked if one does not insist on the prerogatives that accompany it.
It is difficult to seperate completely the menial from the honorific.
- is a surrender to fate. Bahala na roughly translates to whatever happens. It came from Bathala Na, Bathala being the supreme god of the Tagalogs. It is accepting what fate has to offer, often with a negative connotation.
- if the attitude borders on fatalism, it can have a negative results
- if the attitude reflects confidence in God and in one’s self, the result can be positive.
Particularistic Rather Than Universal Norms
Particularistic - Where a person’s concern is centered on sub-groups made up of relatives, friends, colleagues, associates, religious affiliates or members of his/her ethnical regional group in the larger society to which he/she belongs,
In the Philippines, particularistic appeals seem to be rooted in the family and in the network of relationships based on the utang-na-loob type of obligation. One’s family obligations often take precedence over everything else.
Fattalistic Rather Than Manipulative Attitudes
Fatalism - refers to a person's unquestioning
acceptance of results which come from
customary patterns of life.
-frequently found in rural areas
Authoritarian Rather Than Libertarian
discourages individual innovation and tends to keep the individual in step with the crowd
frequently observed in rural areas
Nationalism Versus Particularism
loyalty and devotion to a particular nation
belief that nations will benefit from acting independently rather than
emphasizing national rather than international goals
It means that a major point of loyalty is a unit greater than family or religion and yet smaller than world society
it is the constant effort to develop the resources of the country --- both human and natural.
never reaches its goal (Because the goal is not independence but the best possible good for the nation
Father Bulatao's psychological research
--Indicates that the search for security leads the child, and later the adult, to prefer suffering to the risks involved in defying authority figure.
Mañana or "Bukas na" (procrastination)
- is a Filipino cultural trait which academics sometimes refer to as "reciprocity," and which transliterates as "a debt of one's inner self (loob)."It is also sometimes translated as a "debt of gratitude." (Wikipedia)
- In matters of repayment, it is easy for a person to determine the obligation incurred in terms of utang na loob standards. Custom and tradition set the rules.
- In this relationship, mutual favors will continue to be exchanged. Usually, the proper repayment is what the giver demands.
Negative, because it arrests or inhibits one's action. This trait reduces one to smallness or to what Nietzsche calls the "morality of slaves", thus congealing the soul of the Filipino and emasculating him, making him timid, meek and weak.
Positive, because, a person considers other peoples feelings and avoids arguments or offense to others
Negative, by all standards, because it begins ardently and dies down as soon as it begins. This trait renders one inactive and unable to initiate things or to persevere.
Positive, in a way, because it makes a person non-chalant, detached, indifferent, nonplussed should anything go wrong, and hence conducive to peace and tranquillity.
Negative, because one constantly postpones action and accomplishes nothing. This aggravates a situation, a problem grows beyond correction, a leak or a small break becomes a gaping hole. This arises from an indolent mentality that a problem will go away by itself.
Positive, because one is without stress and tension; one learns to take what comes naturally. Like the Chinese wu-wei, this trait makes one live naturally and without undue artificiality.
“Being heroes to each other”
Where it started...
Nationalism in the Philippines began to develop when diverse tribes noticed that the Spaniards treated all tribes as though they were one...
With common grievances came common aspirations and the different tribes were merged with a common concern for the Philippines.
"No nation can live in isolation."
people are moved beyond concern with self and family into a larger sphere
a vigorous sense of national worth and identity may make it easier to associate with others as part of an international community
Promotion of the country's achievements
limitation of foreign influence
this "patient-suffering" he found to be more typical of women than of men.
the concept of "patient suffering" may include not only enduring disappointment but also drudgery of school and the monotomy of many jobs.
As a result the high status of the Philippine male, encouraged by Spanish practices, is slowly giving way to the more generous equal status of pre-Spanish times.
It is also accentuated in the early family training where the daughter learns to help in the house to manage the household while her brother learns only to be waited upon.
• The distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion, and commercial relationships.
• It is centered at maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group.
• Filipinos desire harmony, not only in interpersonal relationships, but also with nature and religion, while still remaining nondichotomous. (Leonardo Mercado)
• Filipino values are based on the significance of the world to man.
Values, once identified and clarified, can be utilized to promote growth and human development.
Once understood, they can be relevant to the needs and problems of today's society.
The desire to please and to conform
can be balanced with the
value of sincerity and authenticity so that a Filipino
can become tactfully truthful and considerate but
can be used for effective teamwork and cooperation
for a common cause
leads to justice and truth
Tayo-tayo lamang attitude
gives individual feelings of security
with their family and alliance system
can be harnessed for concerted action