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Transcript of Hellenism
means to spread Greek culture.
The Hellenistic period formally extends from the death of Alexander the Great until the death of the last Hellenistic sovereign, Cleopatra
Philip II of Macedonia conquered parts of Greece.
Alexander the Great
completed the conquest of Greece and conquered the entire Persian Empire, from Egipt to India.
How did he manage to do so?
strong leadership and charisma
Remember: upon the conduct of each depends the fate of all.”
Hoplite wore a shield, a t-shaped helmet (no peripheral vision);
The hoplite wore greaves to cover his calves, a molded cuirass that shielded his trunk as well as a long, pleated tunic that protected his abdomen and groin. For a weapon he carried a thrusting spear of five to eight feet in length.
Philip II's Reform
When Philip II became king of
Macedonia in 359 BCE, he inherited an army that was not professionally trained, very little and relatively ineffective.
Parmenio, Perdiccos, Coenus, Cleitus, Ptolemy, and Hephaestion
Infantry: from 10,000 to 24,000, taken from the lower class and extensively trained.
Cavalry: from 600 to 3,500.
Corp of engineers to develop siege weaponry
such as towers and catapults.
Infantry (or Pezetairoi)
Referred to as a “
(different from the hoplite).
Like his predecessor, he carried a shield or aspis - similar to the hoplon, but smaller due to the size of the
(one had to use both hands); it was carried by a sling over the shoulder. Besides the sarissa, each man possessed a smaller double-edge sword or xiphos for close-in-hand fighting.
After 323 the Empire was torn between his successors, the
The shield: 2-foot (0.61 m)-diameter and less concave than the hoplite's aspis. It was secured by both a shoulder harness and a fore-arm brace, allowing the off-hand to release the hand-grip and make wielding the enormous sarissa pike possible.
In close combat, swords were employed - the classic xiphos, the kopis and the makhaira,
: shielded, skirmishing light infantry, almost like the hypaspists
: armed with a long thrusting spear, a short sword and javelins.
were similar but more heavily armoured
The hipparchos commanded a hipparchia. The hipparchiai were divided into ilai, then into lochoi and then into dekades
(sing. dekas, a line of 10 men).
Most cavalry units of the Hellenistic
era were moderately armored with
javelins or/and lances. Cataphracts,
introduced by the Seleucids in the late
3rd century BC, were lancers fully
Demetrius, son of one
of the Hellenistic kings, invented incredible machinery to siege Rhodes.
Archimedes of Syracuse was one of the biggest geniuses of this period. His inventions were massively used in war, like the Claw and the Heat Ray
Aphracts were javeliners or bowmen unarmored.
the circumference of the Earth
Aristarchus of Samo
Alexandria and Athens
The Hellenistic Family
the law of floating bodies
and formulated with scientific exactness the principles of the lever, the pulley, the compound pulley,
the tubular screw for pumping water, the screw propeller for ships,
and the burning lens.
- Adequate conception of the enormous size of the universe.
- The Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun. Unfortunately this deduction was not accepted by his successors.
- The apparent immobility of the "fixed" stars is due to their vast distance from the Earth.
Author of "The Elements",
a synthesis of his and others' discoveries in geometry and mathematics. Not just an explanation, but a demonstration of mathematical facts.
detailed description of the brain, with an attempt to distinguish between the functions of its various parts;
the discovery of the significance of the pulse and its use in diagnosing illnesses;
the discovery that the arteries contain blood alone, not a mixture of blood and air, and that their function is to carry blood from the heart to the rest of the body;
Mathematics through of Practical Problems
librarian of Alexandria;
great mathematicians, invented a way to calculate prime numbers;
produced the most accurate map that had yet been devised, with the surface of the earth divided into degrees of latitude and longitude;
propounded the theory that there is only one ocean;
first to suggest the possibility of reaching India by sailing west;
calculated the circumference of the earth with an error of less than 200 miles.
School founded in Athens in 300 B.C. by Zeno of Citium in the painted colonnade of the Agorà
Logic, epistemology, psychology, physics...
Epicurus, born in Samo in 341 B.C., founded his school in Athens and called it "the garden".
How it is possible to know that anything is true?
Knowledge is high-probability at best
It is possible to argue convincingly for both sides of an issue. Which one is true?
Asserting that nothing can be asserted or proving that nothing can be proved; that we cannot speak of false ideas and at the same time deny the distinction between false and true.
first to reject absolutely the humoral theory of disease and condemn excessive blood-letting as a method of cure.
first to practice human dissection;
2nd century BC
increasing political influence of Rome into the eastern Mediterranean
emergence of Roman families from Italy in Macedonia and the rest of Greece.
commercial relations between Italy and Greece revived: the number of Roman colonists increased and the society was influenced.
People involved in banking and trade found opportunities of acquiring landed property, developed an active role in the political, social and religious life of the cities where they settled and they soon adjusted to the Greek way of life.
Rights and Privileges
From time to time various emperors offered immunity, tax exemption and freedom to cities of the Imperial domains, these being privileges whose precise nature has not yet been established.
Getting Roman citizenship did not entail immunity from taxation and liturgies.
Exemption from taxes
Roman senators, doctors,
famous athletes, mariners,
the Union of Artists of Dyonisus
Along with the capital they brought with them, for investing, they boosted the declined middle class.
political rights were granted to the immigrants or, less often, rights of intermarriage.
registering new citizens
the granting of political rights to people coming from other cities. However, these people were subject to the restriction of settling in the city that granted these rights.
There (as in the rest of the Hellenistic kingdoms) the purely Greek families existed, along with the families that derived from mixed marriages and lastly the families of the indigenous people, since the population was a mosaic of nations. Greeks who emigrated to the Hellenistic kingdoms maintained their
Monogamy did not exist in all societies: the Ptolemies were the first to adopt bigamy.
Moreover, they allowed marriage between siblings, a habit that was not familiar to Greeks.
Free women, usually younger
than their husbands, had the responsibility of the house and the upbringing of children and it was not customary to work outside the house.
for the needs of survival.
The father has the right to control over all the family's members.
A system of thought that
reflected upon a millennium of intellectual culture and
brought the scientific and
creatively harmonized almost the entire Hellenic tradition of philosophy, religion and literature—
moral theories of Plato, Aristotle, and the ethics of the Stoics into fruitful dialogue with literature, myth, and religious practice.
Having succeeded to the school of Plato and Plotinus, she explained the principles of philosophy to her auditors, many of whom came from a distance to receive her instructions. On account of the self-possession and ease of manner which she had acquired in consequence of the cultivation of her mind, she not infrequently appeared in public in the presence of magistrates. Neither did she
There was a woman at Alexandria named Hypatia,
daughter of the philosopher Theon, who made such attainments in literature and science, as to far surpass all the philosophers of her own time.
feel abashed in going to an assembly of men. For all men onaccount of her extraordinary dignity and virtue admired her the more.
institutions. The father continued to be the leader of the household, as during
the Classical period. He was the one who provided
In many regions, slaves were extensively used in agriculture.
At the end of the 2nd century BC, slave revolts broke out, probably encouraged by the events in Sicily, where slaves were incited to rebellion under the guidance of a Syrian named Eunus and the whole endeavour spread and took the form of a social revolt.
In Attica there were only two uprisings (ca. 134 and 103/2 BC) by slaves used in the mines of Laurium by slaves of Delos (ca. 134 BC).
These rebellions seem to have been simply a reaction to their inhuman living conditions. From the moment these uprisings were repressed, such actions did not recur.
Slavery was very common during
The condition of slaves was dependent on the place they lived and the work they were forced to do.
In several places, such as Athens and Rhodes, slaves were allowed to form associations of religious and social character.
There were sanctuaries and place of worship for slaves.
Sometimes, they had been given the economic possibility to accumulate wealth in order to buy their freedom.
Being a Slave
Slaves in Delos
Pirates were the main suppliers of slaves.
They sold them in markets or ask for ransom. There were markets where slave trade was the main activity, such as the market of Delos.
Pirates were a concrete threat to safety and commerce, but the governments of the Hellenistic kingdoms never tried to wipe it out seriously.
No kingdom take any action resolutely in order to repress it, since the Hellenistic kings used them for wars between them.
The ancient traveller, Strabo, mentions that in the middle of the 2nd century BC at least, the market of Delos could receive and sell
ten thousand slaves
in only one day.
Until the end of the 2nd century BC, pirates dominated the seas of the Hellenistic world.
The man who succeeded in controlling the activities of bands and dealing with them was the Roman consul,
In the decade 90-80 BC through
his liquidations, he delivered
the Aegean from the curse of
The Hellenistic period is not characterized
by any substantial change in the productive forces.
Sugar, cotton, apricot, cherry and peach varieties started to be cultivated for wide consumption.
- donkeys started to be used in grain mills.
Cultivation of a quick-growing variety of wheat
double crops and bigger profit
- iron plough
- irrigation wheel drawn by oxen used from 200 BC.
- Archimedean screw, manipulated by slaves for irrigation mainly in mines
- new oil and wine-presses.
Metallurgy, textile industry (dyeworks), glassworks, potteries and construction.
The exploitation of mines at that time was intensive, as for example in Laurium where silver was mined.
Metallurgy and metalworking.
The Hellenistic world was divided into zones within which circulated coinage of different standards.
release of a large quantity of precious metals from the treasuries of the East.
fall in prices of gold and silver and increase in the quantity of circulating money.
The movements of troops and the mercenaries influenced the circulation of money.
With the arrival of the Romans in the region of the eastern Mediterranean, there is a shifting of a large quantity of coins due to the transfer of booty to Rome and to the damages imposed on the defeated enemies.
Taxation during this period was widely imposed, onerous and often arbitrary.
They were usually a 5% combined purchase tax, taxes on the transport of goods and inheritance taxes (encyclion). Also liable to taxation were the installations of enterprises that manufactured edibles (25%).
Monarchs often demanded voluntary stephanoi (crowns), sums gathered by the cities, on the celebrations of various occasional festivals.
were the money holders. Since early times the members of the Ptolemaic dynasty lent to people both inside and outside Egypt. Papyri reveal that monetary transactions were probably carried out by the royal bank in Alexandria,
which probably functioned at the same
time as the central depot of the
Land trade from Syria, Mesopotamia, Arabia and the stretches of Persia.
River trade was mostly through the Nile, since it constituted the main route of Egypt's domestic trade.
The mostly Attic, dialect which, from the period of Alexander the Great until the 6th century AD became the official written and spoken language in the areas of eastern Mediterranean, was appointed as the Hellenistic
or Alexadrian .
In certain cases, syncretism led to the integration of indigenous and Greek deities and to the creation of others, hybrid ones. Typical examples are the unifications of the Egyptian Thoth or Anubis with the Greek Hermes, from whom Hermes Trismegistus and Hermanubis respectively derived.
The theology of eastern populations played a decisive role in the development of a unique and omnipotent being; a celestial god or a supernatural principle. Thus, the Greek Zeus, as the father of all gods, was worshipped under the name of
Hadid in Baalbek, Dolichenos
in Kommagene and Sabazius
During the Hellenistic period the
coexistence of native people and Greek
populations favoured the gradual spread of the Eastern deities' cults: the Egyptian Sarapis, the Mother of the Gods, Cybele, and her lover Attis, the Phrygian Men, the Assyrian Atargatis, Hadad, Melkart, Astarte, Sabazius and many more.
They became popular because they were identified with other Greek deities, especially the Olympians.
Hermes - Anubi
The widespread notion that it is
impossible for the many to exist without One, gradually caused the religious pursuit to turn towards a solar monotheism. Helios was considered the centre of the world and the supreme being, who, in reality combined elements from the Greek Apollo, the Assyrian Mithras and the Syrian Baal.
simplification and generalization of its
Conquests of Alexander
Banking activities developed and the guards of treasures of the different temples participate in these activities. The most representative example is the
temple of Apollo on Delos
, which operated as a successful loaning enterprise charging a 10% interest.
Maritime loans: high risk, insurance contracts. The interest of loans for ships and cargoes could amount to 22.5 or even 30%, depending on the season of the journey.
In general, loans were in effect for short periods and were approved for nonproductive activities.
- The Army (slides 2-12)
- Science (slides 13-25)
- Philosophy (slides 26-35)
- Society (slides 35- 45)
- Economy (slides 46-62)
Intense domestic and international trade.
in the kingdoms and the states which belonged to the Hellenistic "system".
between the Hellenistic world and states beyond its limits (India, Parthia, the southern Arabic states, Italy...)
Lack of progress in ship-navigation...
...with the (important) exception of the triangular sail, supported on a long beam forming an angle of 45 degrees with the central sail, a fact that enabled better sailing in adverse weather conditions.
Sea trade in the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea.
6-10 minutes for each presentation
1 Poster for each topic
1 - What is Hellenism? Can you say when, where and why it begun?
2 - Can you name and describe one of Archimedes' siege machines?
3 - What is the Macedonian phalanx?
4 - In what consisted Philip's reform of the Army?
5 - Who were the diadochs?
1 - Who was the first to measure the circumference of the Earth? Can you describe the technique he used?
2 - Can you name any of the discoveries of Herophilus and Herasistratus?
3 - Which city hosted the most famous library of the ancient world? Name one important scientist who worked in this library.
4 - Describe the three levels of theory of knowledge.
5 - Which city was the cradle of philosophy? Name 2 philosophical school.
1. Explain the concept of isopoliteia and its relevance in Hellenistic society.
2. Describe the Hellenistic economy. Can you name some major innovations in agriculture?
3. What is koiné?
4. Can you describe what is syncretism? Name at least 1 syncretic god.
5. The Sea trade during Hellenism was implemented by the invention of a particular kind of sail. Can you describe it?
Replace the T-shaped helmet with a Phrygian helmet that allowed for better hearing and visibility.
A quite common phenomenon was the exposure and the abandonment of,
babies by their