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T.O.K. Ethics Presentation
Transcript of T.O.K. Ethics Presentation
Real Life Situation:
Kidney Transplant Solicitation
Should one be ethically inclined to donate an organ in this circumstance?
Personal risk of living with one kidney
To What Extent Should Ethical Decisions be Influenced by Personal Considerations?
Claim- Ethical decisions should be derived from rational conclusions of one's motive.
Theory- Kantian ethics
Morality is determined by the motivation of a decision possessing good will, not the effects of the action
Good will is defined according to the "Categorical Imperative"
A moral motivation is one that is universally applicable to all individuals - preserving self
Behavior that contradicts inherent drives goes against this definition of morality - limited by situations on the extremes of emotion or selfishness - selfless sacrifice to save several others
Counterclaim- Ethical decisions should be derived from perception of intuitive moral truths.
WOK- Emotion / Intuition
Theory- Ethical Intuitionism
Basic moral truths can be known naturally and without inference.
Intellectual intuition views truths as general concepts that serve as a basis for ethical development
Perceptual intuition views truths to be concrete, defined guidelines
Limitation - An action may not be immoral because it naturally seems so - murder in defense of one's family
Mini Conclusion- Both universal needs and intuitive understanding can be combined in determining a moral choice of action, as they are situational.
Ethics - Acknowledgment of the subjectivity of morality
Human Sciences - Individual and group psychology or motivation
Reason/Logic - Attempt to determine objective ethical values
Faith - Analysis of morality through religious teachings
Emotion/Intuition - Abstract definition of moral views
Claim- Ethical decisions should be derived through analysis of divine command or motivation.
Theory- Natural Law Theory
Morality and moral values are natural, as created by a god or gods
Divine Command - Morality is what is commanded (scripture), immorality is what is forbidden
Euthyphro Dilemma - Is something moral because it is commanded, or is it commanded because it is moral? - shows subjectivity
Counterclaim- Ethical decisions should be derived through analysis of actions that promote the greatest general good.
The moral course of action in a situation is the one that creates the greatest well-being for the greatest population of all affected.
Classically, each affected individual is to be counted as one, despite forms of societal or pragmatic standing.
Rule Utilitarianism - A Utilitarianist action is moral if it doesn't violate accepted truths or followings.
Lacks pragmatism - difficult to know widespread effects before hand, quantify abstract benefits.
Mini conclusion - Combining these two interpretations can allow pursuit of utilitarian benefit that adheres to “universal followings” of divine morality
AOK- Human Sciences
Claim- Ethical decisions should be made such that they adhere to established social norms and prerequisites.
Theory- Social Contract theory
Counterclaim- Ethical decisions should be derived through pursuit of one’s own well-being.
AOK- Human Sciences
Individuals should make ethical decisions following an interpersonal “contract” with others that defines and forms their society.
Subjecting one's self to societal laws allows transcendence from Thomas Hobbe's "natural state" of constant self-interest and distrust
Progress depends on adherence to common ethical guidelines
The self is the source and motivation for one’s decisions and all actions are driven by self-interest in some way
Relying solely on motivation, Psychological Egoism becomes a unverifiable and unempirical
Rational Egoism - It is also logical to pursue self-interest, but not doing so isn't always illogical - negative social effects of selfishness
Mini conclusion - Realistic moral decisions can take less radical interpretations of both views. Social contract can indirectly provide egoistic benefits, but both fail in extremes / unconsidered situations.
Ethics and morality are situationally subjective; no one interpretation is universally applicable.
The Categorical Imperative, Utilitarianism, and Egoism fail in situations of emotional extremes or ambiguity where Intuitionism and Natural Law theories are more effective.
Intuitionism and Natural Law are highly subjective
Counterclaim - As an undefined concept, morality must be objectively predetermined to be applicable.
Social Contract Theory defines morality relative to ethics accepted in one's society that allows for progress.
Psychiatric Confidentiality - Patient confiding a planned murder; reporting v.s. dismissing for confidentiality
"Sinking lifeboat" Situations - Willfully killing one to save the rest
Don't donate - Social contract, religion, Egoism Categorical Imperative
Donate - Utilitarianism, Intuitionism, Social contract, religion
Frazier, Robert L. "The Motivation for Intuitionism." Intuitionism in Ethics. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Oct. 2014.
Friend, Celest. "Social Contract Theory." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2014.
Kay, Charles D. "Notes on Utilitarianism." Wofford Department of Philosophy. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Oct. 2014.
Moseley, Alexander. "Egoism." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2014.
"Philosophy of Religion." Philosophy of Religion Natural Law Theory Comments. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.
Rachels, James. "Divine Command Theory and God's Benevolence." New York University .edu. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2014.
Shouler, Kenneth, Ph.D. "Understanding Philosophy." Ethical Doctrine -. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Sept. 2014.