Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

1982 Equal Rights Amendment

LEARN THE HISTORY OF THE EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT AS IF YOU WERE A STATE LEGISLATOR IN FLORIDA DURING THE DEBATES. THEN DECIDE IF YOU WOULD RATIFY THIS NEW AMENDMENT TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION!
by

Historic Capitol

on 8 January 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of 1982 Equal Rights Amendment

The Cross Florida Barge Canal The Equal Rights Amendment Opportunity Scholarship Program You get to decide if Florida should build a man-made waterway across the state. It will connect the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. This canal would allow barges to move goods and
people more quickly
and safely. 1961 1982 1999 You get to decide if Florida should ratify the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). The ERA would guarantee men and women equal rights. Thirty-five states have already ratified the amendment. If Florida does too,
it would set the stage for it to
be added to the U.S.
Constitution. You get to decide if Florida should provide "Opportunity Scholarships" to students in failing public schools. These scholarships would provide funds for these students
to go to a better public school or
private school. This program is
one part of former Governor
Jeb Bush's A+ Education
Plan. In 1971, the House passed it by the required two-thirds majority. The following year the Senate did the same. The
ERA was then sent to the state legislatures for ratification. The nation was divided
and so was Florida. The full text of the Equal Rights Amendment was short.
It read: Section 1:
Equality of rights under the law shall
not be denied or abridged by the
United States or by any State on account of sex. Section 2:
The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article. Section 3:
This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification. Choose the proposed legislation YOU would like to learn about and debate! You will get the chance to stand on
the floor of the state House of Representatives, and speak for or against this amendment. Then your class will decide if the Equal Rights Amendment should be ratified! Many protests for and against the ERA have taken place around or on the grounds of the Historic Capitol. Though the supporters seemed to have more protestors, both sides have attracted the attention of the public and the media. Most importantly, these protests at the Capitol have been a way for citizens to communicate their beliefs on the issue to their elected leaders. In 1982, the Constitution did not clearly grant equal legal treatment for men and women. BUT WAIT!
Doesn't the U.S. Constitution already grant men and women equal treatment? All images in this frame are from the Florida Memory Collection www.floridamemory.com Let's look at the text of the proposed amendment to see what the ERA would add to the U.S. Constitution! The Florida Legislature has tried to pass the Equal Rights Amendment three times since 1972. The Florida House of Representatives approved it all three times. But each time, the Florida Senate rejected it. The last time the House passed it, the vote was much closer than the first time. With the 1982 deadline here, no one can guess how either chamber will vote… People for and against the ERA have showed up to the
Capitol in Tallahassee to protest and let their senators
and representatives know what they thought about the issue. Many others who felt strongly about the ERA could not make the trip to Tallahassee. Instead, they called and wrote letters to their representatives expressing their views.
These are examples of actual letters that were sent to representatives in Florida.
Some of them outline arguments similar to those we just discussed.
Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920. Text of the 19th Amendment Section 1: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.

Section 2: Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. The 19th Amendment was the only amendment that spoke of any kind of equal treatment between men and women. Image from Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3a52979/ Two-thirds of the state legislatures call for an Amendment Convention. All states would send delegates to this convention. To ratify an amendment, three-fourths of the delegates would have to support it.
(This method has never been used.) Both chambers of the U.S. Congress can approve the amendment by a two-thirds vote. Then, the amendment is sent to the states. Three-fourths of all the state legislatures also have to pass the amendment. Once one of these options is completed, the amendment is ratified. That means our U.S. Constitution has a brand new amendment in it! 1. 2. ERA supporters tried to use the first way. For years,
they lobbied the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate to pass the amendment. By the next year, 30 states legislatures had ratified the amendment!
But the ratifications began to slow down. In 1979, Congress extended the deadline three more years. By 1982, only 35 states had ratified the ERA. Three more states were needed for ratification.
Four state legislatures planned to hold special legislative sessions that summer to vote on ratifying it. Florida was one of these four states... Ratification of the ERA in 1982 THERE ARE TWO WAYS AN AMENDMENT CAN BE ADDED
TO THE U.S. CONSTITUTION: QUESTION?
How is a constitutional amendment different than a law? ANSWER!
An amendment goes into the nation's founding document, the Constitution. This means the amendment speaks about our society's basic beliefs about right and wrong. Amendments are also much harder to create than laws. They are also much harder to take away, once they are ratified. Well, you already have an idea of what it takes to make a law...
So, let's see what other steps are needed to add an amendment to the U.S. Constitution! Why was the ERA having so much trouble getting the last few states to approve it? Five amendments had been quickly ratified in the last 30 years. When Congress passed the ERA in 1972, many people believed it would easily be ratified as well. But over the next 10 years, the opposite happened. As the deadline in 1982 approached, no one knew if it would be ratified or not! Let's look at some of the arguments for and against adding the ERA to the U.S. Constitution. That way you can make up your own mind! Associated Press
Supporters of the Equal Rights Amendment march down Pennsylvania Avenue
Aug. 26, 1977.
Question 1: Will the ERA help end discrimination in the workplace? Dr. Ann Scott Phyllis Schlafly I agree that these are problems. But the ERA is not the solution. Congress has already passed a law that guarantees equal rights in employment situations. The “ERA will do nothing for women in the field of employment which is not already done by the
Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972.”
Since it is already a law, we don't need to
pass the ERA. We just need to enforce
this law better. Today, women make less money than men for the same job. That means if a man makes $10 for completing a job, a woman might only be paid $6 or $7 for doing the exact same job. Women also are less likely to be chosen for jobs with higher pay or responsibilities. At this time, 84% of elementary school teachers are women. But only 20% of elementary school principals and only 1%
of school superintendents are women.
The ERA would make discrimination
like this illegal across
the boards. In 1973, a program called Firing Line with William Buckley aired a televised ERA debate between Ann Scott (in favor of the ERA) and Phyllis Schlafly (against it). This debate covered many of the arguments people had about the ERA during that time. Definition A school superintendent is the person who is in charge of all schools in a school district. Political activist Phyllis Schlafly in 1975
Michael Mauney / Time & Life Pictures / Getty

Read more: http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1889757,00.html#ixzz22K8QTPmQ Image from http://library.buffalo.edu/archives/womens_work/bios/scott.htm
Question 3: How will the ERA affect the military? Dr. Ann Scott Phyllis Schlafly If men and women have to register for the draft on an equal basis, no exemptions could be made for women. You could not “have a system whereby the women would get all the nice, easy desk jobs and the men get all the fighting jobs. You would have to be equal across the board—in combat, on warships, and
all up and down the line.” I don’t want to live
in a country where women are forced to
serve in the military or allowed to
fight combat, do you? “But if women are to be citizens and citizens are to be subject to the draft, then women should take the responsibilities as well as the rights of citizenship.”
This means that women should be drafted just like men. People would be placed in duties based on their abilities. Why shouldn't a woman be able to fight in combat if she is willing and able? Unfortunately,
our military denies capable women at this time.
But the ERA will change that.

Political activist Phyllis Schlafly in 1975
Michael Mauney / Time & Life Pictures / Getty

Read more: http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1889757,00.html#ixzz22K8QTPmQ Image from http://library.buffalo.edu/archives/womens_work/bios/scott.htm Definition The draft is a system in the United States for selecting citizens to become soldiers during wartime. Registering for the draft was required for men, but not required or even allowed for women.
Question 2: How will the ERA affect marriage? Dr. Ann Scott Phyllis Schlafly Today married women have many rights special to women that they do not want to give up. For example, a wife “has the legal right to be supported by her husband. This is regardless of her own separate means. He can't make her go to work if she doesn't want to. She has the legal right and these are the laws which will be invalidated
by the Equal Rights Amendment." In 1982, many women still "do not have the right to be granted anything by their husband” by some state laws. These laws give men control of any property bought by the married couple. The ERA will make sure men and women are treated equally under the law when married. Political activist Phyllis Schlafly in 1975
Michael Mauney / Time & Life Pictures / Getty

Read more: http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1889757,00.html#ixzz22K8QTPmQ Image from http://library.buffalo.edu/archives/womens_work/bios/scott.htm
Question 4: Could we just pass laws against discrimination? Why is the amendment necessary? Dr. Ann Scott Phyllis Schlafly We have been changing our laws that allow for discrimination between women and men. The 1972 Equal Opportunity Act is an example of that. Most Americans agree with that. But many Americans
do not agree with many of the changes that this Equal Rights Amendment would bring to our
society. Let’s reject this amendment. We
can stop discrimination by making
more good laws as they
are needed. “But if we waited to change the laws, law by law, we would wait something like 200 years before we would have complete equality under the law.”
The amendment is simple and morally right:
Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Stop legal discrimination between
men and women. Add this amendment to the
U.S. Constitution! WHAT
DO YOU
THINK? Now that you have heard the debate about whether or not this amendment will be a good choice for the country... Political activist Phyllis Schlafly in 1975
Michael Mauney / Time & Life Pictures / Getty

Read more: http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1889757,00.html#ixzz22K8QTPmQ Image from http://library.buffalo.edu/archives/womens_work/bios/scott.htm Vice President for Legislation of the National Organization for Women (NOW) National Chairman of STOP Equal Rights Amendment National Chairman of STOP Equal Rights Amendment National Chairman of STOP Equal Rights Amendment National Chairman of STOP Equal Rights Amendment Vice President for Legislation of the National Organization for Women (NOW) Vice President for Legislation of the National Organization for Women (NOW) Vice President for Legislation of the National Organization for Women (NOW) You can click each letter to read them better and use the zoom feature if needed.
1.
2.
3.
4. Rally for the ERA on the steps of the Historic Capitol. (Florida Memory) Click on any picture for a better view. In the Prezi Debate, the text in quotes comes from the Firing Line debate. The rest is paraphrased from the Firing Line debate or is a summary of general arguments at the time. Did any of the signs or letters change your mind or make you think differently about the issue? FL Rep. Gene Hodges and sign opposing ERA amendment
State Archives of Florida, floridamemory.com/items/show/102813
Photograph by Donn Dughi Transcript at: http://hoohila.stanford.edu/firingline/programView2.php?programID=575 This will be Florida’s last chance to ratify the amendment. Only three more states are needed for ratification. If Florida votes for it, many believe at least two more states will follow in their footsteps before the deadline.
What should Florida's legislators do? OR
Full transcript