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Transcript of Oral Defense
Cannot be recycled and largely contributes to the increase if garbage problems.
Some examples are:
To prevent these, we use recyclable materials like paper.
Alternative material is cogon grass. Background of the Study According to 2007 survey, from the national solid waste management commission, there are
677 open dump sites
343 controlled dumps
21 land fills
307 dumpsites - subject for closure or rehabilitation plans
215 additional land fills - proposed to be set up
This shows that we generate a lot of trash, and the waste generation grew up as much as 40% in the coming years. 32% high deforestation rates. Today, 35% the country's forest remain. Imperata Cylindrical (Cogon Grass) - 1 of about 7 species of perennials constituting the genus Imperata and family Poaceae.
Grows on wet lands, dry lands, areas of high salinity, organic soils, clay soils and sandy soils. Statement of the Problem How can paper be made from cogon grass?
Is the quality of paper made from cogon grass acceptable?
Which of the two treatments of cogon grass to be made is of better quality? Significance of the Study Cogon grass in creating cardboard
Considered as a nuisance therefore it can be put into much better use
Preservation of our environment and natural resources Scopes and Limitations Limited to - finding out if it is possible to produce paper from cogon grass
Factors such as time and cost of materials
Cogon grass - used as a perennial, rhizomatous grass used as a packaging material Independent Variable - different treatments prepared from starch and water Dependent Variable - quality of the paper will be closely tested and observed so as to prove the efficiency of the research and materials Paper was invented by the Chinese by 105 AD during the Han dynasty.
Plant fibers were soaked and beaten into sludge - strained through a cloth sieve attached to a frame
Today, paper is usually made from trees but can also be made from other plants.
Paper is composed of cellulose fibers. Cellulose is a polymer of the sugar glucose and is used by plants to produce cell walls.
Paper will be of good quality, depends on the plant and how it was made. Strength = quality of paper
Combination of starch, water, resin, and alum will help create the paper-like material needed for the experiment. Research Hypothesis Null: There is no significance difference in the quality of paper made from the different treatments.
Alternative: There is significant difference in the quality of paper made from the different treatments. Definition of Terms Cogon grass (imperata cylindrica) - aggressive colony-forming perennial grass, often forming circular infestations.
Paper - material made of cellulose pulp, derived mainly from wood, rags, and certain grasses processed into flexible sheets or rolls by deposit from an aqueous suspension Chapter III Cogon grass was taken and left to dry for a week cut into approximately 0.5 inch strips using scissors - then will be weighed and be put into a steel cauldron to boil. 200 mL of water and 18 g of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) per 100 g of cogon grass was poured into the cauldron - stirred and left to boil for 3-4 hours in medium heat. the grass was washed under running water and crushed using a mortar and pestle. The pulp was taken and put into a cotton cloth and extra water was squeezed out using a rolling pin. Unwanted materials were then screened from the pulp. Two treatments were prepared to make the paper.
Both treatments contained 500 g of pulp, 10 g of resin and 8 g of powdered alum. Treatment A contained 5 % water and 7.5 % starch
Treatment B contained 5% water and 11.4% starch
Treatment C contained 10% water and 15% starch.
The materials were mixed and using a paper-making mold, the mold was made into sheets.
The sheets were put into a cotton cloth, and the excess water was removed using a rolling pin.
The sheets were left to dry in the sun. The strength of the paper, and its moisture retension was then tested. A bucket will be weighed and its weight will be recorded. Then a one peso coin will also be weighed and its weight recorded. The area and weight of the sheet of paper will also be measured and recorded.
A strip of paper 5 mm wide will be cut and 20 cm long.
Using 10 cm of duct tape, 3 cm of the strip of paper will be taped to a table so that the strip hangs vertically. Then using 20 cm of duct tape the bucket will be attached to the paper strip. Coins will be added to the bucket until the strip of paper breaks.
Using the weight of the coins the breaking strength will be calculated. This will be repeated three times and the average breaking strength will be calculated. The sheets of paper will then be tested for moisture retention.
Three samples will be weighed first, then 0.5 mL of water will be poured on them.
After 10 minutes, the excess water will be shaken off. The samples will then be weighed again to determine how much water was absorbed.
The ANOVA and the t-test were then used to test the data gathered. Chapter IV: Data and Results Table 1. The breaking strength of paper made from each treatment The greater the weight the paper was able to withstand, the greater is the breaking strength Treatment B has the highest breaking strength at 598.65 g
Treatment C is second in breaking strength with 299.42 g
Treatment A has the least breaking strength with 279.08 g.
In terms of the strength of the paper, Treatment A is the best treatment. Table 2. Results obtained from Water retention test The greater the weight of the sample, the more water it retained Treatment A has the highest water retention.
Treatment C has the second to the highest water retention
Treatment B has the least water retention and it is the most water resistant.
Because Treatment B has the least water retention it is again the best treatment. Table 3. ANOVA Table for breaking strength test Calculated value of F-stat is 3
At a level of significance of 0.05, the critical value of F-table is 5.14.
Since the value of F-stat is less than the value of F-table, it can be concluded that there is no significant difference in the breaking strength of the different treatments. Table 4. ANOVA Table for water retention test The calculated value of F-stat is 3.
At a level of significance of 0.05, the critical value of F-table is 5.14.
Since the value of F-stat is less than the value of F-table, it can be concluded that there is no significant difference in the water retention of the different treatments. Chapter V: Conclusion and Recommendation The researchers have found that it is possible to create paper out of cogon grass
However, the quality of the paper is not very good
The breaking strength of the paper is low compared to regular bond paper.
Treatment B with an average breaking strength of 598.65 g, is less than the breaking strength of regular bond paper.
Treatment B also turned out to be the best treatment in terms of water retention
Treatment B was the best treatment.