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10.2 The Crusades
Transcript of 10.2 The Crusades
1095-1270 What were the Crusades? Western Europe was becoming wealthier and had a superabundance of knights. Definition When? The Pope launched the first Crusade in 1095. (The last Crusade was in 1270.) What? Christian military expeditions to recapture Jerusalem from the Muslims. Where? The Holy Land Who? The Crusaders were knights from Western Europe. How many? There were eight expeditions from Europe to the Middle East. Why? Muslims controlled Palestine - the homeplace of Jesus, founder of Christianity. Because they could! Causes 1. Regain control of the Holy Land In 1095, Pope Urban II commanded European knights to recapture Jerusalem. In 1089, the Muslim Turks captured Jerusalem and refused to allow Christians to visit the shrines. For centuries, Christians visited Jerusalem and other religious sites in the Holy Land. 2. Protect the Byzantine Empire The Emperor in Constantinople asked the Pope for help. The Byzantine Empire was a Christian empire that was threatened by the Muslims. When the Roman Empire fell (the western part), the eastern part still stood. 3. Bring peace to Europe He said: “Stop fighting among yourselves. Go fight in the Holy Land!” The Pope figured this foreign war would prevent nobles from making war on each other back home. 4. Religious reasons The Pope promised that those who died would be forgiven of their sins and go directly to heaven. 5. To gain wealth Clergymen wanted to seize religious relics from Jerusalem. Merchants (especially in Venice) wanted to set up trade with the Middle East. Peasants wanted to escape the drudgery of their daily lives. Nobles wanted to carve out little kingdoms for themselves in the Middle East. The Irony But during the Middle Ages, people regarded a holy war as normal and logical. (Today, we criticize Islamic fundamentalists for waging a jihad - a holy war - against the U.S.) Today, it is unusual for a church to wage war. But Jesus was for peace. It refers to Jesus, who was crucified on a cross in Jerusalem. Crusader means one who is “marked with the Cross.” Today, we regard a “holy war” as a contradiction in terms. The First Crusade This was for personal gain. A ragtag army of peasants rushed ahead of the knights. As they marched through Europe, they robbed villages. Most were murdered by angry Europeans; those who made it to Constantinople were slaughtered by the Muslim Turks. The official Crusaders were French knights: They recaptured Jerusalem. Many, many knights died in the process. The Holy Land was carved into four Christian states. 1096-1099 The Second Crusade This was a waste of time. When the Muslims tried to retake Jerusalem, the Kings of France and Germany led a crusade. They never got to Jerusalem. The Muslim armies stopped them. 1147-1149 The Third Crusade This was humiliating: They lost Jerusalem! In 1187, Saladin (the Muslim sultan of Egypt and Syria) defeated the Crusaders and captured Jerusalem. Three kings led the Crusade: King of France, King of Germany, King of England. They were all defeated by Saladin. 1189-1192 P.S. The King of England, Richard the Lion-Hearted, was heralded by Robin Hood and Walt Disney, but he was not much of a warrior. Saladin allowed Christian pilgrims to visit Jerusalem. The Fourth Crusade This was a comedy. The crusaders never got to Jerusalem. Half of them decided to invade Egypt, but ended up in Yugoslavia. (The merchants of Venice gave them a free ride in their ships if they would first make a detour to Yugoslavia and capture a trading seaport there.) The other half invaded the Byzantine Empire and seized the city of Constantinople 1202-1204 The Third Crusade The Crusades The Crusades:
From the Crescent to the Cross Part 1 Part 2 This was a tragedy. Thousands of poor children (10 to 18) from France and Germany decided to march toward Jerusalem, saying: “We have faith, so God will help us defeat the Muslims.” When they reached the Mediterranean Sea, they got onto ships. When they reached the Middle East, they were sold into slavery. 1212 The Children’s Crusade After the Eighth Crusade (1270), Europeans lost interest in capturing the Holy Land. 1. Feudalism was weakened The Crusaders did not recapture the Holy Land. The knights were not so hot on the battlefield. Effects The Crusaders did not save Constantinople. In 1453, the Byzantine Empire fell to the Muslim Turks. Ever since, the Eastern Orthodox church does not trust the Roman Catholic Church. 2. Constantinople fell to the Muslims. 3. The Pope’s prestige fell. Dante wrote The Divine Comedy and criticized the Pope! He was interested in political gain, not religious fervor. 4. The Muslims: After the Crusades, Muslims did not trust Europeans. 5. The Jews: Ever since the Crusades, the Jews have been victimized in Europe. 6. Trade expanded in Europe
This is the biggie. Contact with the Middle East ended the isolation of Europeans. They were exposed to cultures (Islam, China) that were more advanced. Crusaders brought back (and created a demand for) spices and silk. International fairs turned small towns into big trading cities. Shipping expanded on the Mediterranean Sea, creating seaports and a merchant class in Venice (Marco Polo), Florence (birthplace of the Renaissance), and Genoa (birthplace of Columbus). Navigation and geography became very important: Ships began to use magnetic compasses (from China) and astrolabes (from Islam). Probably the single biggest winner of the Crusades was Venice. Synthesize It! Now let's go back, pull out the important information and write your own definition! Do not circle or underline complete sentences. Only a few words for the following:
1. Underline the year the Crusades started and ended
2. Double underline what the Crusaders goal
3. Circle the location of the Crusades
4.Put a box around who the Crusaders were
5. Put a star next to the reason you think is most important Now take all the parts you underlined, double underlined, circled, boxed and stared and write your own definition.
start with the word "In" Go back and highlight, underline in pen, or just underline the top five causes of the Crusades.