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The Rise of Communism in Russia
Transcript of The Rise of Communism in Russia
February, 1917: A spontaneous uprising
by bread rioters, industrial workers, and soldiers leads to the abdication of Czar Nicholas II. A Provisional Government is established.
October, 1917: Lenin and the Bolsheviks
(the Majority Party) topple the Provisional
Government and install the Communist Party.
Russia is thrust into a civil war that lasts until
1921 (Bolsheviks vs. the White Army).
1921: The White Army is defeated, and Lenin, Stalin, and Trotsky are the dominant figures. Lenin is the strongest leader of the three.
After Lenin died, Stalin took over the Communist
Party and exiled Trotsky. Trotsky went to Mexico
and was assassinated later there in 1940.
Czar Nicholas and his family
are killed on July 17, 1918.
The Communists didn't want
anyone sympathizing with
the royal family and
opposing the new regime.
In the name of Communism, Stalin initiated three 5-Year Plans, where he seized farms and factories and reorganized the Soviet Union's economy. As a result of decreased food production, hundreds of thousands of rural residents died. Those who protested Stalin's policies were killed immediately or relocated to a prison camp in the remote regions of the Soviet Union. Stalin called his Plans a success.
Stalin presented himself as a father-figure to the Soviet Union, and he made it a policy that showing anything less than complete devotion was punishable by exile or death.
*Differing political views and opinions
*Books and music not to Stalin's standards
*Any negative comments about Stalin, especially
from the press
*The press could not talk about the failure of the 5-Year
Stalin's Great Terror of the 1930's
* Stalin targeted members of his government, soldiers, clergy, intellectuals, or anyone else he suspected of non-loyalty to him.
* The KGB (Secret Police) would torture, imprison, or kill (or a combination of all these) any suspects.
* Citizens were encouraged to turn each other in so they could save their own lives.
* The Soviet Union's military was particularly decimated since Stalin saw a military coup as his greatest threat.
* At least 20 million died during the Great Terror alone.
1939: Adolf Hitler is a powerful threat to Europe, so Stalin signs a non-aggression pact with him, even though he'd been warned that Hitler intended to break the agreement. Hitler DID break it...he invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941.
Stalin joined the Allied powers, which included the U.S. and Great Britain, in order to defeat Hitler. But their relationship was fragile because of the communist/capitalist differences.
What Stalin really wanted was for Allied troops to help defend the Eastern Front in Russia. When this never happened, Stalin was furious. Resentment increased between Stalin and his allies.
Another rift: The U.S. developed the nuclear bomb but refused to share the technology with the Soviet Union. As a result, Stalin launched his own nuclear weapons program.
With supplies from the Allies, Stalin defeated the Germans at Stalingrad and pushed the Germans all the way back to Berlin.
But relations between the U.S. and the Soviet Union continued to be tense and ushered in the Cold War (1947- early 1990's).