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Foundations of Curriculum

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Jessica Mayfield

on 5 June 2013

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Transcript of Foundations of Curriculum

The Nature of Curriculum, Curriculum History Curriculum Theory, and The Politics of Curriculum Foundations of Curriculum What Is Curriculum, and why is it important? In literal terms, Curriculum means, "to run a course"
(Glatthorn, Boschee, & Whitehead, 2009, p. 3). The Types of Curricula "The curriculum that is recommended by individual scholars, professional associations, and reform commissions" (p. 6). The Recommended Curriculum The "curriculum of control," to ensure all goals are met
(p. 8). The Written Curriculum "Curriculum as reflected in and shaped by the resources allocated to support and deliver the
curriculum" (p. 11). The Supported Curriculum The Nature of Curriculum Chapter 1: Curriculum can be divided into
three categories:
or both. "The curriculum is the plans made for guiding
learning in the schools, usually represented
in retrievable documents of several levels of
generality, and the actualization of those
plans in the classroom, as experienced by an
observer; those experiences take place in a
learning environment that also influence
what is learned" (Glatthorn, Boschee,
& Whitehead, 2009, p. 3). Prescriptive Curriculum *Implies "what 'ought' to happen."

*Often presented as a plan, which lays outs the foundation of a specific program of study, ultimately giving the teacher the discretion of what to follow

*"The developer proposes, but the teacher disposes."
(Glatthorn, Boschee, & Whitehead, 2009, p. 3) Descriptive Curriculum * "How things are in REAL classrooms"

*The EXPERIENCE, providing "glimpses of
the curriculum in action." In 1979, Goodland & Associates determined five
different forms of curriculum planning:
1. Ideological, as interpreted by teachers and scholars
2. Formal, officially approved by school boards
3. Perceived, what stakeholders think the curriculum is
4. Operational, what actually goes on within a classroom
5. Experiential, what learners actually experience

(Glatthorn, Boschee, & Whitehead, 2009, p. 6) Can be compared to Goodlad's "ideological curriculum," in that it focuses on skills and concepts that should be given strong focus. The recommended curriculum is strongly influenced by "opinion shapers," such as scholarly authors, professional associations, and federal and state legislators. These stakeholders will ultimately assist coordinators and teachers in making instructional program decisions. The written curriculum is specific, providing support for goals and objectives. Generally mirrors the "preferences and practices of a local group of elites: curriculum director, subject area supervisor, principal, and experience teachers" (p.9). The written curriculum has three functions: mediating (compromises between experts and teachers), standardizing (to control what is taught), and controlling (to ensure it is being delivered). There are four critical resources of the supported curriculum: Time allocation to a given subject, time allocation by the classroom teacher, personnel allocations, and textbooks and other resources provided for classroom use. Aspects of the supported curriculum range from a school's master schedule, to class size, to
on-level textbooks and learning resources. As a result, the supported curriculum is a major factor in all stages of the curriculum cycle. Therefore, any shortcomings or failings in
support can potentially negatively impact student achievement. The Taught Curriculum is anything that can be observed while a teacher is teaching.

The Tested Curriculum is what is assessed, and later analyzed, via standardized tests.

The Learned Curriculum is what the student understands and retains from both the hidden and intentional curriculum. Curricular Policies designate "the set of rules, criteria, and guidelines intended to control curriculum development and implementation"(p. 17). Components of the Curriculum Curricular Goals are "the general, long-term educational outcomes that the school system expects to achieve through its curriculum" (p. 17). Including: Critical-thinking skills, problem-solving strategies, effective communication skills, basic reading and math skills, knowledge of how to solve problems, interpersonal and technology skills, good health habits, acceptance of cultures, money skills, and willingness to continue learning. Divisions of Curriculum 1. Fields of Study: Standard Subjects
2. Programs of Study: Offered for particular learners
3. Courses of Study: Organized learning experiences during a year, semester, or quarter
4. Units of Study: Organized set of related learning experiences lasting 1 to 3 weeks
5. Lessons: Organized set of related learning experiences lasting 20 to 60 minutes The Hidden Curriculum "Those aspects of schooling, other than the intentional curriculum, that seem to produce changes in student values, perceptions, and behaviors" (p. 23). Hidden Curriculum in the U.S. includes
democratic capitalism and the social
skills and traits required by society. The Variables of the Hidden Curriculum *Organizational Variables- How teachers are assigned, and how students are grouped for instruction. *Social-System Variables- How the socioeconomic makeup of a school drives student achievement. *Culture Variables- How the role of culture and language impact learning. Curriculum History Chapter 2: The Temper of Times •G. Stanley Hall-Believed in evolutionary social change; providing the gifted child with the opportunity to grow
through individualized activities.
•Francis W. Parker-”The father of progressive education” Child centered methods, build on what the child instinctively knows. The Exemplary Leaders Progressive Functionalism (1917-1940) Developmental Conformism (1941-1956) Scholarly Structuralism (1957-1967) Romantic Radicalism (1958-1974) Privatistic Conservatism (1975-1989) Privatistic Conservatism (1975-1989) Technological Constructionism (1990-1999) Technological Constructionism (1990-1999) Modern Conservatism (2000-present) Modern Conservatism (2000-present) A Century of Curriculum Trends in Retrospect Curriculum Theory Chapter 3: Successful Curriculum leaders realize educational theory serves as a catalyst for change. The Nature and Function of Curriculum Theory -Curriculum Theory: "A set of related educational concepts that affords a systematic and illuminating perspective of curricular phenomena" (p.77).-Educators, researchers, parents, and policymakers are working to create successful schools by blending philosophy and practice based on sound research that will result in a quality educational experience for every student.-Theory has three legitimate purposes: to describe, to explain, and to predict. -New Curriculum leaders will need to be familiar with a broad spectrum of curriculum theory ranging from behavioral to critical (p.78). Leadership in Curriculum -It is important that leaders understand the "mirrored" relationship between theory and
practice and how they mold and shape the
other. This understanding is crucial in
the effectiveness of curriculum
changes in schools-what and
why it works. Quality leadership means having a
thorough understanding of curriculum
and being able to change
administrative roles and responsibilities
when needed to
meet the new challenges
of curriculum design (p. 79). Leadership in Curriculum Historical development Areas of review for curriculum leaders include: (p.78) Current theory and practice Dimensions in curriculum Cultural considerations Process of change Staff development needs Impact of Technology Models of instructional
design Models of learning strategies Identify and implement
teaching methods Techniques of the
evaluation process Practical application of
curriculum design Although many attempts have been made to categorize theory, it remains dynamic. Classifying
Curriculum Theories -Approach 1: "Soft curricularists" draw from fields of religion, philosophy, and literary criticism. "Hard Curricularists" rely on empirical data. Theorist Classifications Include: -Approach 2: "Traditionalists" are concerned with the most
efficient way of delivering a fixed set of basic knowledge. They
see curriculum as class, teacher, course, units, and lessons "Conceptual Empiricists" derive their research methodologies
from physical sciences that will help produce generalizations to control and predict what happens in schools. -Approach 3: "Reconceptualists” Individuals who emphasize subjectivity and the art of interpretation. Theory
by Glatthorn: 2) "Structure oriented theories"
concerned with analyzing the
components of the curriculum and
their interrelationships. They seek to describe and explain how curricular components interact within an
educational environment. 1) "Value-oriented theories"
concerned with analyzing the
values and assumptions of
curriculum makers and products. 3) "Content-oriented theories" concerned with determining the sources that should influence the content of the curriculum, which can be classified into three categories: 1)Child Centered-the child shapes the curriculum Three child-centered movements have occurred: Affective education that emphasized the feelings and values of the child, Open Education emphasized the social and cognitive development of the child, and Developmental Education that looks at the developmental stages of a child. 2) Knowledge-Centered Curricula-Disciplines and/or bodies of knowledge determines what is taught. 3) Society-Centered Curricula-curriculum is based on social order Among these theorist are Conformists, who believe the existing social order is a good one and formulate curriculum based on that fact. Reformers, who see society as good, but want to effect major reforms in the social order. Futurists analyze the present and present alternative scenarios. Radicals see society as flawed and empower the young to make radical changes. The child's society plays little into what is taught. 4) "Process-oriented theories" are
concerned with describing how
curriculum is developed or
recommending how it should be
developed. Alternative
by Smith Knowledge to be transmitted via
a syllabus. This is often
manipulated to agree with
the local interests, values, needs,
and wants of the government,
community, or school. Curriculum as
Transmission of Information Goals and objectives
are the common focus Curriculum as
End Product Focuses on the interaction
between teacher, student,
parent, and knowledge Curriculum as
a Process These are often known as
constructivism approaches
allowing students to
create/find their knowledge. Curriculum as
Praxis/Awareness focuses
on differentiated curriculum. (Glatthorn, Boschee, & Whitehead, 2009, p. 3) Brain Based Research and Technology continue to be a catalyst for Curriculum change. Many theorists have made forecasts about schools of the future. Aligning to a global society, educational equity, hyperlinked learning, scientific knowledge, holistic standards, and networks of learning are among many changes that seem to make educational change seem limitless. The Perspective of the Past Academic Scientism (1890-1916) •Academic influence-result of systematic and somewhat effective efforts of the colleges to shape the curriculum for basic education. •Scientific influence-resulted from the attempts of educational theorists to use newly developed scientific knowledge in making decisions about the mission of the school and the content of the curriculum. •Educational trends of the time were characterized by the post-civil war growth of industry, development of urban areas and the impact of popular journalism. The Predominant Trends •Academic influence-Charles W. Eliot, president of Harvard University. He believed in a sound academic curriculum, making recommendations for elementary, secondary and higher education. •Scientific influence-Influenced educational thinkers in three ways: 1. Provided intellectual support for a rational and meliorist worldview: All that was needed was more knowledge and the ability of apply that knowledge.
2. Provided a content focus for the curriculum.
3. Provided a means for improving the schools and curriculum. Herbart Society changed its name in 1900 to the National Society for the Scientific Study of Education. The Major Publications •The Committee of Ten-College Prep class offered: classical, Latin, languages, English•The Committee of Fifteen-Elementary curriculum instruction; central subjects (grammar, literature, arithmetic, geography and history). The Temper of Times
•Growth of the country, Depression, rise of Hitler in Germany The Predominant Trends
•Progressivism in Education-Child-centered curriculum determined by child’s interest
•Functionalism-Curriculum should be derived from an analysis of the important functions or activities of adult life. The Exemplary Leaders
•John Dewey-Relationship of school and society; enable the individual to create meaning
•Franklin Bobbitt-Process the child into the model adult The Major Publications
•The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education-7 cardinal interrelated principles: health, command of fundamental processes, worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure time and ethical character.
•The Foundations of Curriculum-Making-Brought together the thinking of all the major experts in the field to balance the studies of the child and adult grounding of the curriculum and recognize the importance of both individual and societal needs. The Temper of Times
•World War 2, segregation, atomic age The Predominant Trends
•The Developmental Theorists-Havighurst (developmental task)•Conformity as an Educational Goal-Help children and youth conform to existing societal norms, emphasize functional outcomes-practical skills and knowledge and develop core curricula. The Exemplary Leaders
•Ralph Tyler-Developed a syllabus for education to answer 4 questions about learning experiences.
•Hollis Caswell-Importance of staff development, developed study materials and bibliographies, believed teachers should be involved in curriculum development and developed three determiners of curricula: child interests, social meaning and subject matter. The Major Publications
•The Psychology of Intelligence-Piaget’s nature of intelligence and the child’s developmental stages: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations and formal operations.
•Education for All American Youth-Developmental Conformism, schooling for all children and youth 3-20. The Temper of Times
•Sputnik (strong programs for science and math), federal aid funding The Predominant Trends
•Academic scholars produced numerous curricula for elementary and secondary education. The Exemplary Leaders
•Jerome Bruner-Scholarly Structuralism (efficient means of using the limited time available), structures of discipline•Joseph Schwab-Permissive eclecticism (use any valid approach to understand natural and human phenomena) The Major Publications
•The Conant Report-High school: 4 years of English, 3 years of social studies, 1 year mathematics, 1 year science; academically talented students take additional courses; senior course in American problems.•PSSC Physics-Involved students in discovery and inquiry as the basic pedagogical methods for identifying the structure of physics. The Temper of Times
•Rampant violence, glories of being young (rock music, “openness” in relationships The Predominant Trends
•Alternative Schools-Strongly teacher centered, curricula was child-centered, “schools of choice”
•Open Classrooms-Rich learning environment with stimulating learning materials and activities, centers, self-discipline•Elective Programs-Secondary schools where students choose from a variety of short-term courses. The Exemplary Leaders
•Carl Rogers-Counseling; Rogerian approach: one who attempts to enter into the client’s world, adopt the client’s frame of reference and listen emphatically without advising.
•John Holt-Believed the teacher is the curriculum; schools needed exciting and imaginative teachers who could provide a stimulating learning environment and involve learners in meaningful learning experiences. The Major Publications
•Crisis in the Classroom-Projected open education into the public limelight
•Man: A Course of Study-Social studies course for 5th and 6th graders The Temper of Times
•Conservative philosophy, increased religiosity, information age, widespread immigration The Predominant Trends
•School Effectiveness and School Reform-Key factors in effective schools: organizational and structural variables, process variables

•A More Rigorous Curriculum-academically challenging curriculum•The Critical Thinking Movement-“basics of tomorrow”: evaluation and analysis skills, critical thinking, problem-solving strategies, organization and reference skills, synthesis, application, creativity, decision making given incomplete information and communication skills.

•Accountability-Teachers and students held more accountable, curriculum alignment projects to align the written and taught.

•Vouchers-select states endorsed the voucher/choice concept with varied and different requirements

•Multicultural Education-Schools added token programs and special units on famous women or famous people of color. States varied on the requirements.

•Goals 2000: Educate America Act-6 goals for the nation’s performance of children to achieve by 2000 set by George H. W. Bush (pp. 58-59). The Exemplary Leaders
•Benjamin Bloom-Bloom’s taxonomy; educational objectives: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
•John I. Goodlad-After conducting research he concluded that in all academic areas the emphasis was on teaching basic skills and facts. Almost no attention was given to inquiry, critical thinking or problem solving.
•James Banks-Pioneer of multicultural education, “multicultural school environment” The Major Publications
•A Nation at Risk-Educational reform, widespread impact, topic of public debate•High School: A Report on Secondary Education in America-2 year study of the American High School
•Multiethnic Education: Theory and Practice-Total of 5 editions that described actions educators could take to institutionalize educational programs and practices related to ethnic and cultural diversity. The Temper of Times
•State content standards, “school choice”, stock market reaching all-time highs, “dot-commies” became popular, Department of Education became closer to the president The Predominant Trends
•Charter Schools-Publically funded, publicly controlled and privately run•Technology-Accessing the internet and sharing information with others, federal money connected every classroom to the internet.
•The Standards-Based Movement-All states but Iowa adopted academic standards, high schools modified curricula to include tech prep courses. The Exemplary Leaders
•Elliot W. Eisner-Professor at Stanford, leading theorist on art education and how schools might improve by using the processes of the arts in all their programs.
•Robert J. Marzano-Senior fellow who developed programs and practices used in classrooms that translate current research and theory in cognition into instructional methods.
•Joseph S. Renzulli-Professor of educational psychology whose research focused on the identification and development of creativity and giftedness in young people and on organizational models and curricular strategies for total school improvement. The Major Publications
•Classrooms That Work-Strategies that work effectively in classrooms.
•Data Analysis-Had a vast impact on state officials, administrators and teachers, continues to play a major role in the school-improvement process, written to help educators learn how to deal with data. The Temper of Times
•Modern conservative influence, Educational reform (No Child Left Behind, Race to the Top, Common Core Standards, 9/11, worst business scandals in U.S. history The Predominant Trends •No Child Left Behind Act-Federal education bill passed by George H. Bush
•Global Education-Colin Powell, “Americans must be engaged with the rest of the world more than ever before."
•School Vouchers-Returned towards a more modern and conservative nature,
controversial issue
•Homeschooling-Continued to gain in popularity and strength •Race to the Top-Government is committed to providing every child access to a
complete and competitive education, prepare students to graduate ready for
college and careers
•Diversity Education-With so many diverse groups, it’s hard to determine which
cultural groups should be the primary focus in curriculum, publications or
•Common Core State standards-Standards that more than 40 states adopted,
educators will work under the same guidelines to prepare students with what
they need to know and are expected to do. The Exemplary Leaders •Linda Darling-Hammond-Professor, chief education adviser to the president, been involved in
the development of standards and enhanced teacher education and teacher preparedness.
•Carol Ann Tomlinson-Professor whose work in the area of differentiated instruction is well known internationally, tremendous impact on the school-improvement process. The Major Publications •No Child Left Behind Act-Schools are continuing find ways to improve student achievement,
align standards and learn more about the brain and how children learn.
•Enhancing Student Achievement: A Framework for School Improvement-Importance of aligning state
and national standards and determining a means of assessing the school program as a whole.
•Brain Matters: Translating Research Into Classroom Practice-Classroom instructional strategies
.•Leading in a Culture of Change-Dynamics of effective leadership in this era of
modern conservatism
•Fair Isn’t Always Equal: Assessing and Grading in the Differentiated Classroom-Book is meant to
do 4 things: Serious reflection on grading and assessments, affirm effective grading and
assessment practices, provide language and references for conversations, provide coherent and effective
grading practices.
•The Way I See It: A Personal Look at Autism and Asperger’s-Book on the challenges of autism 2 general observations can be made: Pace of change, each period becomes increasingly shorter (27 years, 24, 16, 11, and 7). The sixth and seventh period last about a decade. The current period seems to be determined by the results of the American presidential elections. The second observation is of the rhythms and directions of that change; separate streams that continue to flow: Academic rationalism, personal relevance, cognitive processes, social adaptation reconstruction and technology (pg. 79). The Politics of Curriculum Chapter 4 •The struggle for power in the curriculum making process is most often seen at the federal, state, and local districts levels, and differentially, in most cases positively, affects the recommended, the written, and the taught curricula (p. 125). •Forty-nine states have adopted state standards and a majority adopted the Common Core State Standards (p. 139). •Looking at the role of the federal government in influencing the school curriculum, it is helpful to keep in mind a historical outlook, because patterns of influence have changed over the past few decades (p. 129). •Professional groups exercise their influence at the national, state, and local levels
(p. 142). Scholarly Structuralism •Time to play catch up with the Russians (launch of Sputnik)•Began an intensive and extensive federal intervention in curriculum•Educational leaders became convinced that rational, technological approaches could solve the problems facing the schools•Main intervention strategy by the federal government was the development and dissemination of generic curricula•To begin with the federally funded generic curricula appeared to be successful…resistance to the federal efforts to change the curriculum through direct intervention began to increase Romantic Radicalism •When “rights,” not responsibility was the dominant motto•Minority groups asserted their rights to liberation and to more power•Develop specific policies mandating changes in the operation of schools and put up rewards to those schools who comply•Pressures from two groups: those pushing for bilingual education and those arguing for the educational rights of the handicapped Privatistic Conservatism •Time was dominated by Ronald Reagan

•Reagan’s six goals relating to education:
1. Substantially reduce federal spending
2. Strengthen local and state control
3. Maintain a limited federal role in helping states carry out their educational responsibilities
4. Expand parental choice
5. Reduce judicial activity in education
6. Abolish the Department of Education Technological Constructionism •Interest turned toward standards and student achievement, the U.S. Dept. of Ed. And Congress began looking at more effective ways to close the gap between students in wealthy and poor communities
•President Clinton’s “Goals 2000: Educate America Act” was passed
•Goals 2000 Technology Plan
•1997 Congress and the Dept. of Ed. Developed the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSRD):designed to give to give schools more flexible funding to adopt research-based models that focused on improving the whole school, not just specific students or areas Modern Conservatism •2001 educational reform
returned to a more private and
conservative nature
•President George W. Bush’s move
toward charter schools, vouchers,
and tax credits
•Supporters for charter schools,
vouchers, and tax credits did not want government in the
business of controlling
schools The Internal Pressures
•First, teachers must need to satisfy strong personal ambitions
•Second, teachers a sense of independence, an understanding they have the power to make decisions
•Third, teachers need to feel that they are valued—students need them, important to the school
•Fourth, teachers have a strong need for success, a need to feel that they are a part of helping students succeed Teachers assume a wide range of roles to support school and student success: The External Pressures
•First, identify and team together those clusters of teachers in which professional relationships and commitments are fostering instructional innovation
•Second, respect the judgment of the teachers and be willing to adjust strategies to complement teacher innovations
•Third, put resources up for grabs for the teachers- leaders by supporting shared practice, planning, and professional learning focused on improvement of practice
•Fourth, acknowledge that goals and initiatives can best be addressed by treating teacher-leaders as vital and powerful partners Administrators, school boards, and state and federal
policy-makers should consider doing the following: How can educators, especially curriculum specialists looking for the best of curriculum and instructional practice, deal with the virtual blizzard of leading edge advice on curriculum and pedagogy? Challenge Question
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