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Floss Dental

heat can be beat

hoda asadi

on 13 January 2014

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Transcript of Floss Dental

Dental Floss

by: Hoda Asadi


Floss is a flexible strand. Interdental cleaners are wooden or plastic sticks or brushes that are used to clean between teeth.

What Is Dental Floss?
Dental floss or Tooth floss is a bundle of thin filaments used to remove food and dental plaque from teeth.

How Flossing can whiten your teeth?
Some types of whitening floss are coated with microscopic abrasive silica particles.

Others are treated with compounds such as calcium peroxide that can help dissolve some of the excess proteins that saliva deposits on teeth that cause discoloration.

The main way is removing food particles and bacterial plaque to keep gums healthy.

What does floss do?
Floss removes food trapped between the teeth and removes the film of bacteria that forms there before it has a chance to harden into plaque.

Plaque that is not removed can harden into tartar that can only be removed through professional cleaning. This condition is called gingivitis, the early stage of gum disease.

Flossing helps remove debris and interproximal dental plaque, the plaque collected between two teeth.

Flossing for good health

Daily Flossing helps keep your whole body in good shape:
Decreases risk of heart disease
Reduces risk of developing gum disease
Helps to examine our mouth for any swelling, redness or lesions
Helps to check conditions such as cancers, HIV/AIDS, substance abuse and eating disorders.
Helps fight bad breath. Persistent bad breath may indicate a serious medical condition such as bronchitis, diabetes or liver problems.

The History of Dental Floss
Over the years, anthropologists have found evidence that ancient people used various implements such as pointed sticks for interdental cleaning.

Credit for the invention of dental floss goes to a New Orleans dentist-Levi Spear Parmly-Who in 1815 began advising his patients to use a thin silk thread to clean between their teeth.

In 1882 a company called the Codman and Shurtleft Company, based in Randolph, Massachusetts, began marketing an unwaxed silk dental floss.

This was followed in 1896 by the first dental floss from Johnson & Johnson Corporation.

The New Jersey-based J&J took out a patent for dental floss in 1898 that was made from the same silk material used by doctors for silk stitches.

During the 1940’s nylon replaced silk as the material used in dental floss.

Nylon’s consistent texture,greater abrasion resistance, greater elasticity and resistance to shredding were an improvement over silk versions.

Waxed floss and Dental tape were also developed in these years.

Today, the variety of types of dental floss has expanded to include newer materials.

In response to environmental concerns dental floss made from biodegradable materials is now available

What is dental floss made from?
Dental floss is commonly made out of one of two polymers (synthetic compounds), either nylon or Teflon.
Nylon is defined as a fiber-forming substance of a long-chain synthetic polyamide.
A polyamide is a compound characterized by more than one amide group; an amide is a chemical related to ammonia.
Teflon is the trade name of the polymer polytetrafluoroethylene or PTFE.
Other raw materials are the coatings, which may be wax, flavors, and various proprietary ingredients
which vary with the manufacturer.

The Manufacturing Process
Filament extrusion and twisting (for nylon):

Since floss consists of many filaments, it can be produced in different counts.It is measured by Denier or Decitex.

There is a direct correlation between the numerical value of the decitex or denier and the thickness of the strand of floss : if this value increases, the thickness of the strand also increases

To make floss from nylon, nylon salt is polymerized and the resulting polymer is poured out as a ribbon. Next, it is cut into small chips, flakes, or pellets. These are blended, remelted, and pumped through spinnerets to form filaments.
When the nylon cools, the filaments solidify and regather to form a yarn. The ends of the filaments are combined to create one strand of floss. Correctly twisting the nylon is a vital part of this process; the turns average between 2.5 and 3.5 per inch. Twisting adds strength to the floss as well as greatly reducing fraying or breaking.

Making floss with Teflon :

To produce a Teflon dental floss, a polymer of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is formulated.
the polymer is melted into a paste and stretched into a long, thin strand. The polymer is then expanded into one or more directions. The PTFE is cut, forming different deniers.
After the PTFE is processed, its tensile strength is substantial. Unlike multi-filament nylon flosses, PTFE is a monofilament, which does not shred or break easily. Therefore, twisting is not required for this process. The rates of stretching during the manufacturing process give this floss its added strength.

Filament coating

This process allows manufacturers to differentiate their products by permeating the floss with distinctive and proprietary coatings. The coating takes place in emulsion baths, where the floss is pulled through waxes, flavors, and other desired coatings at a consistent velocity.

Bobbin winding
Floss bobbins are next wound in one of two shapes: cylindrical or roll type.
Winding the floss bobbins requires the use of equipment that transfers the yarn from one type of spool to another type. A cylindrical bobbin is dispensed through a tube or rectangular-shaped package. It can be wound where the floss is pulled through the center or pulled from the outer layer first. The advantage to this type of bobbin is that it can accommodate more yardage.
The roll bobbin is the more conventional type of floss bobbin. It is dispensed through flat containers by pulling from the outer layer only.

Case molding
The standard case for nylon flosses is an angled, two-piece construction, usually polypropylene, with an insert that holds the floss spool. Recently, many manufacturers have opted to upgrade their floss dispensers by using a one-piece "clam shell" construction that incorporates a window to gauge product use as well as grooves to facilitate gripping


Floss bobbins are usually assembled manually into the floss container. The bobbin cores are cut to separate them. Next, they are placed into the container, the floss is threaded around a metal cutting clip, and the cover is closed. The package is now ready for labeling, or if the container is pre-decorated, it is ready for packing and shipping.

There are three basic methods of decoration: pad printing, labeling, and thermal transfer.
Pad printing is the most prevalent form of decorating used in the U.S.
Labeling is the preferred choice for most product exported to Europe.
Thermal transfer generates an image quality equal to or better than the pad printing image with the advantage that it allows for a greater range of colors and designs.


Marketers prefer blister packaging (a plastic mold affixed to a cardboard backing, which can hang on a display peg) because it prominently displays the package and eliminates the need for paper packaging, which is deemed better for the environment.
Another packaging trend is to co-pack floss along with a toothbrush, toothpaste, or mouthwash.

Some products & their price
The Future
Two leading manufacturers have recently developed dental flosses with new types of filament.
Oral-B Laboratories introduced Oral-B ULTRA FLOSS. Unlike conventional or ordinary dental floss, which has a series of straight nylon strands, ULTRA FLOSS features an ultra strong filament, containing a patented network of interlocking fibers that resists shredding and fraying. ULTRA FLOSS' woven, spongy texture also works differently than conventional floss; it stretches thin to fit easily between tight teeth spaces, then springs back to its original thickness to trap plaque in its filament. ULTRA FLOSS is soft for sensitive gums, gentler on the fingers, and pre-measured into 18-inch (46 cm) segments, the length recommended by the American Dental Association.
The Future
John O. Butler Company introduced Butler-Weave, a dental floss that acts like dental tape. This smooth, shred-resistant floss spreads out when pulled between teeth, providing more surface contact with the tooth for effective plaque removal. In addition, its thin, flat profile glides easily between tight contacts

Oral B Essential Mint Waxed Dental Floss (50m)
$ 2.00 to 2.99

Oral B Pro Expert Premium Floss
$4 to $ 4.99

Oral B Satin Mint Tape
$3 to $ 3.50

Oral-B Super Floss X 50 Strips
$3.95 to $3.99

Dental Floss Manufacturers
Johnson & Johnson
Full transcript