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Curriculum

module 4 lesson 2
by

gary parker

on 19 March 2013

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Transcript of Curriculum

Introduction Awarding body Atherton (2011) The term “curriculum” is used in a number of related ways.
First it can refer to the overall content of what is to be taught, as in the "National Curriculum" in the UK, which specifies the content of by far the largest part of compulsory schooling.
Second, it can refer to the underlying principles of the approach to teaching and learning, as in a "developmental curriculum" or a "competency based" curriculum.
Third, it can embrace both elements and refer to the overall "what", "How" and "why" of teaching. Note that on the whole it is a "teaching side" - rather than "learning side" - term. Definition of curriculum GENERATIVE
APPROACH Referred to as “constructivist” or “developmental”

Here, the teacher functions as a facilitator who takes a less central role in a learning process that is a student- directed. Information is presented on a schedule determined by students’ interests and goals.

Learning is assumed to be socially constructed MAX FERDINAND SCHELER was a German Philosopher known for his work in phenomenology, ethics, and philosophical anthropology.

Hierarchy of values is shown in our preferences and decisions.

From lowest to the highest HIERARCHY
OF
VALUES Pleasure Values

- the pleasant against the unpleasant
- the agreeable against the disagreeable

Sensual feelings

Experiences of pleasure or pain Vital Values-values pertaining to the well being either of the individual or of the community

Health

Vitality Spiritual Values-values independent of the whole sphere of the body and of the environment

-grasped in spiritual acts of
preferring, loving and hating

Capability

Excellence Values of the Holy-appear only in regard to objects intentionally given as “absolute objects”

Belief

Adoration

Bliss
THE
CURRICULUM The objectives of a curriculum or teaching plan are the most important curriculum criteria, since they should be used in selecting learning experiences and in evaluating learning achievement.

Clearly stated and they are used by teachers and students in choosing content, materials and activities for learning.

Students-teacher planning in defining the goals and in determining how they will be implemented. 1. A good curriculum is systematically planned and evaluated.
2. A good curriculum reflects adequately the aims of the school.
3. A good curriculum maintains balance among all aims of the school.
4. A good curriculum promotes continuity of experience.
5. A good curriculum arranges learning opportunities flexibly for adaptation to particular situations and individuals.
6. A good curriculum utilizes the most effective learning experiences and resources available.
7. A good curriculum makes maximum provisions for the development of each learner. -is the process of collecting information by reviewing the product of student work, interviewing, observing, or testing. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE OF EVALUATION FROM ASSESSMENT? Assessment is feedback from the student to the instructor about the student’s learning. Evaluation is feedback from the instructor to the student about the student’s learning. Climate Surveys – Feedback of teaching/learning methods used, text, pace, format of class, etc. Muddiest Point - Discussion Board or individual student input for what is still unclear Minute Paper – What was most useful that you learned? What questions remain? PreTest and PostTest – Questions to show overview of course content; used for first day to show depth and breadth of topics covered and last day to show what learning has occurred Reflection Paper – Student critical thought feedback over a learning unit, a learning experience, a field experience, etc. Group Informal Feedback on Teaching (GIFT) Anonymous survey asking for 1- 2 instructor actions that help students learn and 1-2 instructor actions that hinder or interfere with learning Self-Assessment Survey or Posting Evaluation

• Quizzes
• Exams
• Worksheets
• Clinical Evaluations
• Papers
• Projects: Group and Individual
• Skills and Competencies/Practical Exam
• Graded Assignments of all formats INFERENCE

Is the process of arriving at a logical conclusion from a body of evidence

Usually refers to the process of developing a conclusion on the basis of some phenomenon that is not experienced or observed directly by the person drawing the inference. WHAT IS CURRICULUM
EVALUATION? CURRICULUM EVALUATION

Is the process of obtaining information for judging the worth of the educational program, product, procedure, educational objectives or the potential utility of alternative approaches designed to attain specified objectives

It focuses on determining whether the curriculum as recorded in the master plan has been carried out in the classroom KEY QUESTION ASK IN EVALUATING CURRICULUM

Are the objectives being address?

Are the contents presented in the recommended sequence?

Are the students being involved in the suggested instructional experiences?

Are the students reacting to the contents TYPES
OF EVALUATION FORMATIVE

Takes place during the lesson or project and tells the evaluator what is happening.

Is ongoing and yields information that can be used to modify the program prior to termination. Minute Paper – What was most useful that you learned? What questions remain? Embedded questions – Questions embedded within the actual graded tests Competency Checklists – Skills and competencies checklist of ability Student Portfolio of Work – compilation of work, including drafts, over time to show growth and development of skills and knowledge. Evaluation Quizzes


the Exams Worksheets Clinical Evaluations Papers Projects: Group and Individual Skills and Competencies/Practical Exam Graded Assignments of all formats INFERENCE

Is the process of arriving at a logical conclusion from a body of evidence

Usually refers to the process of developing a conclusion on the basis of some phenomenon that is not experienced or observed directly by the person drawing the inference. CURRICULUM EVALUATION

Is the process of obtaining information for judging the worth of the educational program, product, procedure, educational objectives or the potential utility of alternative approaches designed to attain specified objectives

It focuses on determining whether the curriculum as recorded in the master plan has been carried out in the classroom (Ofsted) EVALUATING CURRICULUM

Are the objectives being address?

Are the contents presented in the recommended sequence?

Are the students being involved in the suggested instructional experiences?

Are the students reacting to the contents THANK YOU The subjects i teach are Sports Leadership Level 1 and life skills. I am also responsible for running an after school club two days a week and travel training students from home to school, work placement, youth club or place of interest. The Sports leaders award is made up of 6 units. The learners have to complete 6 units to achieve the award. The units are delivered over two years and are a combination of theory and practical work.
The learners have to deliver a one hour physical education lesson independently or with little help which is observed by a person not associated with delivering the course. Sports Leaders UK was founded in 1982 and has delivered awards and qualifications through formal curriculum in schools, colleges and universities but the urgent need for the skills and opportunities that the courses deliver is in the community, not just the classroom. The Sports Leaders UK portfolio contains 20 awards and qualifications. Experience in sports leadership in schools, colleges and universities show improvements in behaviour, attendance and academic performance. Sports Leadership UK is the awarding body. They are part of the of the (QCF) Qualification Credit Framework which recognises achievement through the award of credit for the achievement of units and qualifications. It provides a simple and rational organising framework that presents learner achievement and qualifications in a way that is easy to understand, measure and compare. It gives individuals the opportunity to learn in a more flexible way. Sports Leadership can award unit acredited certificates for completed units which can be evidenced to complete the course at a later date. References Anderson, P. & Butcher, K (2006) Childhood Obesity: Trends and Potential Causes. The Future of Children. 16 (1) 19-45

Atherton J S (2011) Teaching and Learning; [On-line: UK]
http://www.learningandteaching.info/teaching/about.htm accessed 19 February 2013

Holt, N & Talbot, M (2011) Lifelong Engagement in Sport and Physical Activity: Participation and Performance across the Lifespan. Abingdon, Routledge

Prior, D & Paris, A (2005) Preventing Children’s Involvement in Crime and Anti-social Behaviour: A literature Review. [Online] Department for Education and Skills. Report Number: 623. Available from: https://www.education.gov.uk/publications/eOrderingDownload/RR623.pdf [Accessed 19 February 2013]

http://www.simplypsychology.org/bandura.html

QCF - The Qualification and Credit Framework [On- line UK ]
http://www.qcf.skillsfundingagency.bis.gov.uk/ accessed 19 February 2013

Sports Leaders UK
http://www.sportsleaders.org/ accessed 19 February 2013 Develop physical skills
Develop self-esteem and self confidence
Ensure lifelong participation
Develop creativity
Provide activities to keep pupils away from crime and off the streets
Develop social and moral skills
Open up possibilities for student post-school (1st aid qualifications)
Promote health e.g. freedom from illness
Promote physical growth and development
Provide enjoyment
Ensure pupils are alert to safety at all times
Promote cognitive development Aims of my Curriculum Growing obesity in children and adults.
By 2025 - 40% Brits
By 2050 - Majority Brits
Costing £46bn (Anderson, P. & Butcher, K 2006)

Growing amount of child related crime
Age 10 - children by law: responsible for unlawful actions
(Proir & Paris. 2005)
Average no. U18's in custody 2010/11 - 2,040
(CIVITAS. 2011)

Can lead to LLP (life long participation)
Beginning in childhood and is accessible to all people, regardless of experience or ability level.
(Holt&Talbot. 2011)
Every child matter
Healthy living initiatives

Some reasons behind my curriculum The Hidden Curriculum The hidden curriculum refers to the set of rules or guidelines that are often not directly taught but are assumed to be known Garnett, 1984; Hemmings, 2000; jackson, 1968; Kanpol, 1989;

The hidden curriculum contains items that impact social interactions, school performance, and sometimes safety. The hidden curriculum also includes idioms, metaphors, and slang - things most people "just pick up" or learn through observation or subtle cues, including body language. For example "get off my back" and using body language like frowning, looking irritated and raising your voice communicates you want to be left alone, but to somebody who has social-cognitive challenges and pre-dominantly interprets language literally, the term will have a totally different meaning and be very confusing.
(Smith Myles, Trautman, Schlevan, 2004) The Hidden Curriculum Breaking a hidden curriculum rule can make a person a social outcast or certainly a social misfit. For example there is a hidden curriculum for nose picking. It is not "do not pick your nose" but " use the bathroom and use a tissue". failure to follow the hidden curriculum can cause a child to be shunned by peers, be viewed as gullible, or considered a trouble maker.

The hidden curriculum is complex elusive and it is impossible to identify every variable. For example the phrase "Shut up" between two girls can be interpreted in several ways. In a friendly conversation it can mean "amazing" or "wow." In an argument it can mean one person wants the other to be quiet or quit talking.

Body language is about how we communicate or "speak" with our body. It includes gestures, facial expressions, body posture and tone of voice. Sometimes body language can seem different to a persons words, and for this reason, it is important to understand body language. The Hidden Curriculum The hidden curriculum can differ across age. Seeking attention of a girl you like as a 9 year old boy is totally different to that of a 16 year old or 25 year old. A 9 year old might follow her around, gently push her or make silly faces at her. As a 16 yer old he would be called a "jerk." At 25 years old they might be reported to the police.

Girls and boys might be asked to help around the school in gender specific ways for example as when boys move furniture and girls serve coffee at parents'' evenings.

Hidden curriculum can differ depending on who you are with. When a young person talks to an adult they are grammatically correct but with their peers they might use a few curse words in their conversation.

Cultures have their own hidden curriculum. In some cultures it is acceptable to burp after having eaten and deemed a compliment. In other cultures it would be deemed bad manners. Impact hidden curriculum can have. With the students i work with not understanding hidden curriculum can cause them to be bullied, ignored, made fun of or be misunderstood.

School as a whole has a hidden curriculum. What to wear, what is acceptable to bring to school and how to greet others. Students need to know this hidden curriculum in order to make an informed decision about their appearance.

Other areas of hidden curriculum that can have an impact are at home, in the community, workplace and the hidden curriculum surrounding law enforcement. Teaching the hidden curriculum Teaching the hidden curriculum is a very important role for me to help individuals with social-cognitive challenges understand the hidden curriculum as many do not learn these items incidentally.
Bathroom rules. Wash your hands after, flush the toilet or close the door when in a cubicle
Parties. Do not ask to go to someones party, The host is in charge at the party and If it's a birthday the host will blow the candles out on their cake.
Clothing. Wear clothes appropriate to the weather conditions, lesson or untie your shoes before you put them on.
Eating. Wash your hands before eating food, always chew with your mouth closed or do not eat other peoples food (without asking first).
Friendship. You should not have to pay someone to be your friend, Friendships take a while to develop. speaking to a person once does not make them your friend.
Life skills. Clap after a play not a movie or giving right money and receiving the right change is important. THE LIST IS ENDLESS Sports Leaders UK are the awarding body they are part of The Qualifications and Credit Framework. (QCF) They can award unit accreditation for units completed which can be used later to complete the full course.
The Qualifications and Credit Framework is a new way of recognising achievement through the award of credit for the achievement of units and qualifications. It provides a simple and rational organising framework that presents learner achievement and qualifications in a way that is easy to understand, measure and compare. It gives individuals the opportunity to learn in a more flexible way and enables a wider range of organisations, including employers, to have their training recognised.
http://qcf.skillsfundingagency.bis.gov.uk/ Curriculum is developed through the efforts of a group of individuals from different sectors in the society who are knowledgeable about the interests, needs and resources of the learner and the society a whole.

It is the product of a long and tedious process of
evaluation and changed.

For a curriculum to be effective, it must have
continuous monitoring and evaluation.

Relate to the society or the community in which the curriculum will be implemented.

Relate to the individual learner and his needs, purposes, interest and abilities. WHAT ARE THE MARKS OF A GOOD CURRICULUM? A curriculum consists of Aims and objectives
some suggestion as to content /subject matter
Teaching and learning methods /experiences
Assessment
Evaluation/QA procedures
Structure, management and organisation Curriculum ideologies Conservative / classical humanism
Based on a division of areas of study which have come down to us from ancient western civilisation eg; sciences, arts and languages etc. Focus on the nation. Subject centered, teacher led with an emphasis on discipline.
Curriculum's purpose is to transmit cultural heritage or reinforce power structures

Democratic /liberal humanism
Education for all, values on quality, relevance and lifelong education. Teacher student negotiation.
Curriculum's purpose is to reinforce a common culture on equality, lifelong learning etc. Romantic / progressivism
Developed from the work of Dewey (1916) The purpose of the curriculum is learner centered not subject centered. The developmentof the individual, personal growth, unlocking the learners potential with learning as an active process. The teacher is a facilitator and fellow learner.

Revisionist / instrmentalism
The curriculum exists for a specific purpose related to the economic or social needs of society. This is often focused on developing a skilled workforce.These approaches to the curriculum can be divided into Traditional and adaptive instrumentalism. The development of specific vocational skills and emphasising transferable skills in an economy which is rapidly changing. Reconstructionism
Sees the curriculum as a vehicle for social change and progress. The curriculum is deliverd through group discussion and exploration. This approach has relevance for some community based programs and schemes. Curriculum ideologies Curriculum ideologies Personal development By assessing the learners needs i can differentiate in my planning to meet the needs of the individual. Student reviews and assessments at the start, mid term and end of the course together with student satisfaction surveys are very informative about my own practice and how the course is going. When each unit is completed i reflect on what went well and not so well. I have personal development reviews with my line manager every year where my training needs are discussed, identified and addressed enabling me to update existing skills or learn new ones. The school where i work has a variety of CPD events where colleges can familiarise themselves with changes in Government legislation or policies. All this helps contribute towards the development of the curriculum. CPD obligations are common to most professions. Many professions define CPD as a structured approach to learning to help ensure competence to practice, taking in knowledge, skills and practical experience. CPD can involve any relevant learning activity, whether formal and structured or informal and self-directed

Individuals that are observed are called models. In society children are surrounded by many influential models, such as parents within the family, characters on children’s TV, friends within their peer group and teachers at school. Theses models provide examples of masculine and feminine behavior to observe and imitate.
In social learning theory Albert Bandura (1977) states behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways. This is illustrated during the famous bobo doll experiment (Bandura, 1961). By Gary Parker
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