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Transcript of Concentration
-Explain the main theories of concentration effects
-Identify different types of attentional focus
-Describe some attentional problems
-Explain how self-talk works
-Explain how to asses attentional ability
-Discuss how to improve attentional focus Assessing Attentional Skills Test of Attentional Interpersonal Style
-Nideffer devised a Test of Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TIAS) to measure a person's attentional style, or disposition.
-Measure a person's generalized way of attending to the envoronment, it does not consider situational factors. Chapter 16 Concentration What is Concentration?
-Having exclusive attention to one object: Close Mental Application
-Taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seems several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration of consciousness are the essence. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others. Four Parts of Concentration
1. Focusing on the relevant cues in the environment (selective attention)
2. Maintaining that attentional focus all the time.
3. Having awareness of the situation and performance errors.
4. Shifting attentional focus when necessary. Relating concentration to performance
Successful athletes and trainers agree that the ability to concentrate is a must in order to succeed.
-Attentional control is a must.
-Remaining focused and not allowing irrelevant stimuli to distract is a must.
-The ability to change plans on circumstances is a must. Single-Channel (fixed capacity)-This approach focuses on information being processed through a single channel.
Variable(flexible) Approach-This approach focuses on where individuals can choose where to focus their attention, allocating it to more than one task at a time.
Multiple Resource Pools-This approach views attention like multiprocessors, with each processor having its own unique capabilities and resource-performer relationships. This view is the current view used today.
The major theories attempting to explain the role of attention in performance have used an information processing approach. Three Main Approaches When Studying Attentional Processes Attentional Selectivity
Selective attention refers to letting some information into the information-processing system whereas other information is screened or ignored
As performers become more proficient in a given skill, they can move from more conscious control to more automatic (somewhat unconscious) control
Example: dribbling a ball
Types of self talk:
Positive (motivational) focuses on increasing energy, effort, and positive attitude but does not carry any specific task-related cue.
Instructional helps the individual focus on the technical or task-related aspects of the performance in order to improve execution.
Negative is critical and self demeaning and gets in the way of a person’s reaching goals; it is counterproductive and anxiety producing. Negative self-talk is detrimental to performance. The process of self-talk functions as a mediator between an event and a response. Self-talk plays a role in reactions to situations, and these reactions affect future actions and feelings. Psych-up *power*
Confidence *I can make it*
Instruction*focus on your technique*
Anxiety Control*calm down*
Worry *I’m wrong again*
Disengagement*I can’t keep going*
Somatic Fatigue*I’m tired*
Irrelevant thoughts*What will I do later tonight* Eight Types of Self Talk Empirical evidence shows that what is accessible in our minds can exert an influence on judgment and behavior simple because it is there. Creating ironic errors. When we constantly think of not doing a certain act we end up focusing more on the thing we are trying not to act on. By trying to reduce or get rid of the anxiety, we spend more time thinking about it, which overloads the system and results in reduced performance. Focus on what to do instead of not what to do. Ironic process in sports: trying not to perform a specific action can inadvertently trigger its occurrence. Self- talk is typically motivational or instructional depending on the need of the athlete. Uses of metaphors in self-talk are extensive in use.(e.g., strong as an ox, fast as a cheetah)
Four categories of self-talk:
Nature -positive or negative; internal or external
Structure -single cues words like breathe, concentrate, come on
Person –one talks to self in the first person (I, me) or in the second person (you)
Task Instruction-skill specific (tackle low, get there faster) Enhance concentration
Regulating arousal levels
Improving mental preparation
Breaking bad habits
Acquiring new skills and sustaining effort Uses of Self-Talk Performance Enhancement
Recent research has shown self– talk to be effective in enhancing exercise. More recent empirical research has shown self-talk enhances task performance.
Mikes (1987) suggest six rules for creating self-talk:
Keep phrases short and specific
Use the first person and present tense
Construct positive phrases
Say your phrases with meaning and attention
Speak kindly to yourself
Repeat phrases often Techniques for Improving Self –Talk Thought stopping
One way to cope with negative thoughts is to stop them before they harm performance. Concentrating on the undesired thought briefly and then using a cue or trigger to stop the thought and clear the mind. A simple cue word or snapping of the fingers to trigger the mind away from the thought. Practice Another way to eliminate negative thoughts is to redirect. Focus attention on encouragement and motivation. Recognize situations which produce negative thoughts and why. Substitute a positive statement in place of the negative. Practice by making a cart of negative thoughts and then replace with positive ones. Use the chart to reinforce positive mental change.
"Effective attenders can concentrate on several stimuli without getting overloaded and can narrow attentional focus without leaving out important information. Ineffective attenders are easily confused by multiple stimuli."
Effective Attenders deal well with simultaneous stimuli from external and internal sources. They have high scores on broad-external and broad-internal focusing and can effectively switch their attention from a broad to a narrow focus as is necessary. They can attend to many stimuli without becoming overloaded with information. They can also narrow their attentional focus when necessary without omitting or missing any important information.
Ineffective Attenders tend to become confused and overloaded by multipli stimuli, both internal and external. They have trouble narrowing their attentional width. For example, they may have trouble blocking out crowd noises or movement in the stands. They have a narrow focus in which important information is left out. To perform better in sport competition, they must learn to switch their direction of attention at will and to narrow or broaden attention as the situation demands. Effective and Ineffective Attentional Styles Psychophysiological Measures Electroencephalogram Measures
-Studies using EEG
-Use of heart rate
-Brain-wave technology References http://www.stack.com/2012/05/17/mental-movies/