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Social Cognitive Theory

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Michael Cestare

on 22 April 2013

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Transcript of Social Cognitive Theory

Social Cognitive Theory Background Background (Cont) Overview 1960's - Cognitive Revolution pushed to understand an organisms "internal life" or how individuals perceive and think about the world around them; 1962 - Bandura publishes "Imitation of Film- Mediated Aggressive Models"

In 1986 Bandura publishes "Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory" expanding on "social learning theory" analyzing the role of human motivation and action

Bandura continues to theorize and work with SCT throughout his career Bandura's Triadic Reciprocal Determinism Michael Cestare

Spring 2013 SCT Is a brand of social psychology studying how people think about themselves and others

Views people as information processors that take in information, sort, and interpret

Early-mid 20th century - psychology dominated by behaviorist tradition (B.F. Skinner, reward vs. punishment)

Stemmed from works by Miller and Dollard in 1941 identifying factors influencing learning behavior (behavior learned through observation) Overview (Cont) 4. Self Regulation - Controlling oneself through self-monitoring, goal-setting, feedback, self-reward, self-instruction, and social support

Keys to Success: Build in goal-setting activities throughout an intervention; create realistic and measurable goals; allow time for reflection and evaluation regarding successes/failures

5. Facilitation/Behavioral Capability: Providing tools, resources, or environmental changes that make new behaviors easy to perform

Keys to Success: Provide knowledge and skills-based training

6. Observational Learning - Beliefs based on observing similar individuals or role models perform a new behavior

Keys to Success: Provide credible role models who reflect the target population and perform the desired behavior Overview (Cont) 7. Incentive Motivation - The use and misuse of rewards and punishments to modify behaviors

Keys to Success: Determine what incentives motivate participants to participate in the intervention; provide options!

8. Moral Disengagement - Ways of thinking about harmful behaviors and the people harmed that make infliction of suffering acceptable by disengaging self-regulatory moral standards

Keys to Success: Re-engage self-regulatory moral standards by illuminating possible dehumanization and diffusion of responsibility onto others Model Utility SCT is useful for assessing an individuals motivation to exercise or perform a behavior, or predicting outcomes in the following populations:

College students
Elder women
Those with chronic disease (obesity, breast cancer) (Wood and Bandura, 361-84) Overview (Cont) Outcome Expectations - Beliefs about the likelihood and value of consequences of behavioral choices

Keys to Success: Demonstrate positive outcomes for performing the desired behaviors

Self-Efficacy - Confidence or beliefs in one's ability to perform a given behavior. Self-efficacy is task specific, and can increase or decrease based on the specific task at hand, even in related areas

Keys to Success: Break down behavior change into small, measurable steps; allow intervention participants to recognize and celebrate small successes in the path to grand behavior change

Collective Efficacy - Confidence or belief in a group's ability to perform actions to bring about desired change; also the willingness of community members to help

Keys to Success: Bring people together and mobilize to action Overview (Cont) Reciprocal Determinism: Personal factors, environmental factors, and behavior continuously interact by influencing, or being influenced by one another

Key Constructs:

Outcome Expectations
Collective Efficacy
Behavioral Capability
Observational Learning
Incentive Motivation
Moral Disengagement Model Efficacy Model Strengths Model Limitations Discussion & Questions SCT interventions were effective for obese women, working mothers, breast cancer survivors, and African American pre-schoolers
Interventions varied; improved physical self-concept, self-efficacy, and body image satisfaction
Also improved moderate-vigorous physical activity
Short term interventions = short-term improvements Multidimensional: avoids stages of change and rigid processes

Concepts are applicable in real-world implementation

Universality: can be used in a number of settings and for different cultures/populations


Large body of research Too broad, tries to explain too many aspects of human behavior with limited constructs
Strong reliability, but poor validity
Relies too much on self-reporting (reporter bias)
Too much emphasis on self-efficacy and control
Lack of attention to genetic and biological factors References:

Annesi, James J., A.E. Smith, and G. Tennant. "Cognitive-behavioural physical activity treatment in African-American pre-schoolers: Effects of age, sex, and BMI.." Journal of Pediatric and Child Health. 49.2 (2013): 128-32. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Annesi, James J. "Effects of The Coach Approach Intervention on Adherence to Exercise in Obese Women: Assessing Mediation of Social Cognitive Theory Factors." Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 82.1 (2011): 99-108. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Bandura, Albert, et al. "Imitation of Film-Mediated Aggressive Models." Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 66.1 (1963): 3-11. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Conn, Vicki S. "Older Women: Social Cognitive Theory Correlates of Health Behavior." Women & Health. 26.3 (1998): 71-85. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Dzewaltowski, D.A. "Toward a Model of Exercise Motivation." Journal of Sports and Exercise Psychology. 11.3 (1989): 251-69. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K., & Lewis, F.M. (2002). Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Glanz, K., Rimer, B.K., & Viswanath, K. (2008). Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Hatchett, A., J.S. Hallam, and M.A. Ford. "Evaluation of a social cognitive theory-based email intervention designed to influence the physical activity of survivors of breast cancer.." Psychooncology. (2012): n. page. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Mailey, E.L., and E. McAuley. "Impact of a brief intervention on physical activity and social cognitive determinants among working mothers: a randomized trial." Journal of Behavioral Medicine. (2013): n. page. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Miller, N.E. & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Petosa, Lingyak R. , Rick Seminski, and Brian Hortz. "Predicting Vigorous Physical Activity Using Social Cognitive Theory." American Journal of Health Behavior. 27.4 (2003): 301-10. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Ramirez, Ernesto. "Constructs of physical activity behaviour in children: The usefulness of Social Cognitive Theory." Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 13.3 (2010): 303-10. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Rogers, Laura Q, et. al. "Social Cognitive Theory and Physical Activity During Breast Cancer Treatment."Oncology Nursing Forum. 32.4 (2005): 807-15. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Rovniak, Liza S, et. al. "Social cognitive determinants of physical activity in young adults: A prospective structural equation analysis." Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 24.2 (2002): 149-56. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

“Social Cognition.” International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 25 Feb. 2013.

Wallace, Lorraine, et. al. "Characteristics of Exercise Behavior among College Students: Application of Social Cognitive Theory to Predicting Stage of Change."Preventive Medicine. 31.5 (2000): 494-505. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Winters, Eric R, et. al. "Using social cognitive theory to explain discretionary, “leisure-time” physical exercise among high school students." Journal of Adolescent Health. 32.6 (2003): 436-42. Web. 7 Mar. 2013.

Wood, R. E., & Bandura, A. (1989). Social cognitive theory of organizational management. Academy of Management Review, 14(3), 361-384. (Int'l encyclopedia of social sciences, 2008) (Int'l encyclopedia of social sciences, 2008) (Glanz, Rimer and Viswanath, 2008) (Glanz, Rimer and Viswanath 2008) (Glanz, Rimer and Viswanath 2008) (Glanz, Rimer and Viswanath 2008) (Glanz, Rimer and Lewis 2002) (Glanz, Rimer and Viswanath 2008)
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