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The Abyssal Zone
Transcript of The Abyssal Zone
How does the greenhouse effect apply to the abyss?: Abiotic Factors Temperatures remain constant year-round between 0° and 4° C due to the lack of environmental factors. The abyss is located 2,000–6,000 meters below the surface of the ocean. It is directly beneath the Bathyal Zone, and right above the Hadal Zone. There is Zero light that reaches the abyssal zone, so photosynthesis does not occur and many animals have their own ways of producing light, or they are blind. Greenhouse gasses heat up the temperature of the ocean, and even though the sunlight doesn't directly ever hit the Abyssal Zone, it will negatively affect other Zones, which will in turn affect the Abyss. There aren't any seasons due to the same lack of environmental factors and the absence of sunlight. Biotic Factors The primary producer in the Abyssal Zone is Chemosynthetic Bacteria. Chemosynthetic bacteria thrive near hydrothermal vents because of the large amounts of hydrogen sulfide and other minerals they produce. These bacteria are the start of the food web as they are eaten by other larger organisms. The abyssal zone supports many species of invertebrates and fishes. The species that live the abyssal zone include the black swallower, tripod fish, deep sea anglerfish, and the giant squid. These animals are able to withstand the pressures of the ocean depths which can be up to 76 megapascals or 11,000 psi. Many abyssal animals have a protruding lower jaw to sift through the sand so they are able to find their prey. Anglerfish: attracts its prey using a bioluminescent lure, and then quickly snatches it into its huge teeth. Tripod fish CARNIVORE The major Carnivores include the angler fish and the Giant Squid. Giant Squid: They have ten limbs and their eyes are the size of basketballs. Some kinds of vegetation that grow there are phytoplankton, and algae. Not many plants grow in the abyssal zone because there is not enough sunlight that reaches this zone, and therefore photosynthesis doesn't take place. phytoplankton Mutualism:
The blob fish attached itself to the body of the giant crab where they lay eggs in their gill chambers. This may seem like parasitism, but it is beneficial for the crab as well because the blob fish eats the parasites and refuges off of the crabs body, and the eggs do not harm the crab. Parasitism:
The Lanternfish, commonly mistaken by the fish with the glow light hanging over its head, (not that fish) connects itself under the gills of the larger carnivorous animal who dwell closely on the ocean floor, and eats the fauna that grows on it since the fish are so stationary in the Abyssal Zone. Symbiotic Relationships:
Carnivorous species such as Abyssal crustaceans live closely together with the organisms that live on the ocean floor and in the mud without harming each other, because the carnivorous fish are blind and can only catch prey that is big enough to sense. Relationships Food Web Many of the biotic factors have adapted to be able to withstand the extreme pressure and lack of light. Some fish have adapted to have large eyes to see any glimpse of light, and some don't have eyes at all. Some fish use a chemical reaction to produce their own light called luminescence. Abyssal Zone Locations There aren't very many examples of how humans have affected the Abyssal Zone but in the past, the Abyssal zone and other deep
parts of the ocean have been utilized for dumping
low-level radioactive waste. This has since
been banned but other forms of pollution still affect
the deep ocean. Ships have sunk to the
bottom along with sometimes dangerous cargo. To lessen the impact of these pollutants, it would be key to try to make sure that ships that have been destroyed are reported and taken care of as soon as we possibly can. Human Impact Life in the Abyss mostly relies on decaying materials from upper regions of the ocean to drift down so they can use it as food, so if humans were to cause a catastrophe in the upper surface areas of the ocean, then it would eventually affect the abyss as well. Two species cannot occupy the same niche. So, all of the populations in the abyssal zones have different niches, maintaining a stable, functioning ecosystem without conflict between species.
In the abyssal zone, fish live longer and reproduce more slowly so the growing season tends to run slowly during the year. To help keep the Abyssal Zone healthy, humans could be much more careful about the waste that they are putting into the oceans because while this might not affect the abyssal zone right away, it will affect the higher areas of the ocean, which will eventually negatively affect life in the abyssal zone. http://www.pnas.org/content/106/46/19211.full http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/2489/abyssal-zone http://kingfish.coastal.edu/biology/sgilman/770Food%20WebsChallenges.htm http://marinelife.about.com/od/habitatprofiles/p/deepsea.htm http://www.universetoday.com/74362/abyssal-zone/