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Transcript of Philosophy
Frankie Costanzo Philosophy: Final Project We have not only learned so much in Philosophy, but we have tried to answer many interesting questions. We created many memories in this class as well. We have enjoyed it very much! Thank you to everyone for making it so great! Voltaire Thank you for watching!! phi*los*o*phy Noun
1. The study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, esp. when considered as an academic discipline.
2. A set of views and theories of a particular philosopher concerning such study or an aspect of it. Humans orient their lives around certain ideas about what reality is like (metaphysical theory) and ideas about what reality and human beings should be like (ethical or moral theory). Why Is It Important? Humans are not born with the instincts to figure out what they should think or want. They are born, however, able to make up their own minds and able to question certain beliefs. It is evident that the adequate understanding we humans have of ourselves or others is based on what we ask and the way we answer types of general questions. It seems near impossible to be human without asking and answering these philosophical and scientific questions. The lives people lead and the choices they make are the result of the philosophies they hold, whether they are conscious of this fact or not. Examples of Philosophers and Their Ideas St. Anselm has been a major influence in western theology and is famous as the originator of the ontological argument for the existence of God. An ontological argument attempts to prove God's existence through abstract reasoning alone. St. Anselm St. Anselm's Ontological Argument 1) God is that than which no greater can be conceived. 2) If God is that than which no greater can be conceived that there is nothing greater than God that can be imagined. Therefore:
3) There is nothing greater than God that can be imagined. 4) If God does not exist then there is something greater than God that can be imagined. Therefore:
5) God Exists. An objection to this argument was created by Gaunilo of Marmoutiers, who constructed his own argument for the existence of the perfect island. The perfect island is that than which no greater can be conceived. Any island that does not exist, cannot be the island that no greater can be conceived, for it could be conceived to exist which would be greater. Anyone who thinks the perfect island does not exist, is confused; the concept of the perfect island entails that there is such a thing as the perfect island. Ontological arguments use the same logic. Therefore they all
must be unsound. There are similar arguments for the existence of the perfect pitcher or the perfect husband for the existence of anything perfect at all can be constructed. If any of these is sound, then they must all be sound. Clearly these are not all sound.
The perfect baseball pitcher does not exist.
Neither does the perfect husband.
There is something wrong with the logic of these arguments. The fact that there is no perfect island and no
perfect husband or pitcher, shows that the
logic of the ontological argument for God's
existence, is flawed. Voltaire is the author of a satirical novel named Candide. Sat*ire Noun
1. The use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or the like, in exposing, denouncing, or deriding vice, folly, etc.
2. A literary composition, in verse or prose, in which human folly and vice are held up to scorn, derision, or ridicule.
3. A literary genre comprising such compositions. Candide can be known as:
*All For The Best
*Optimism Candide lives a sheltered life in an Edenic paradise and is shown optimism by his mentor named Pangloss.
As the novel goes on, Candide witnesses the hardships in the world that people deal with.
The main idea by the end of Candide says that, "all is for the best in the best of all possible worlds. Candide was banned soon after publication because of the fact that it contained religious blasphemy, political sedition and intellectual hostility hidden under naivete. Candide falls in love with Cunegonde. Cunegonde falls in love with Candide as well but she is forbidden by her family to have anything to do with him. She is from a wealthier family and Candide comes from a simple family. Optimism is a big part of this novel. Things happen that you would think would stop anyone or make anyone think that it wasn't possible to keep going. Candide is an optimist and keeps fighting so he can be with Cunegonde. Candide sort of pokes fun at optimism in constantly saying that everything happens for the best and everything happens for a reason. Voltaire's Candide has become popular in pop culture as well from being made into a movie and being put on stage into a play. Philosophy is a growing subject throughout the world. Philosophy is a major offered by many colleges including:
University of Oxford
Australian National University
Fundan University(China) How philosophy impacts us? All humans orient their lives around ideas about reality is lie, that they believe explains their experiences, and ideas about what reality and human beings should be like , that they use to guide their behavior. Philosophy has remained an important subject from the Greeks and the Romans, and throughout the Enlightenment period, and to today.