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Academic Motivation in Elementary Students

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Megan Ray

on 20 October 2013

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Transcript of Academic Motivation in Elementary Students

Statement of Need:
-Less controlling
-desire to support autonomy
-learn how
Autonomy Support in the Home
less behavior problems
higher GPA
more time on homework
smaller dropout rate

Froiland (2011)
Results

intervention with parents about rearing methods
included role play and feedback
goal setting
questionnaire about children's motivation
Froiland (2011)
parents in treatment group reported higher IM improvement
children felt better about homework in treatment group
AS environment --> IM children
Coupled with AS school environment, AS home environment for children=best predictor of IM
Academic Motivation in Elementary Students
Autonomy Supportive vs. Controlling Environments
I. Intrusion
II. Applied pressure
III. Neglect of student’s perspective

*Detrimental to positive functioning
*Leads to decreased intrinsic motivation
(Reeve, 2009)


-Understand child’s perspective
-Provide rationale
-Patience

*Promotes academic functioning
*Yields more successful students
*Leads to higher intrinsic motivation
(Reeve, 2009)
AUTONOMY
SUPPORTIVE
>
CONTROLLING
(Vansteenkiste, et al., 2004)
- Participants given questionnaires

-intrinsically framed vs. extrinsically framed

-autonomy supportive (“you could”, “you might”) vs. controlling (“you should”, “you must”)


But...
(Vansteenkiste, et al., 2004)
- duty to have students perform up to standards

- pressure from school administrators, parents, & school policies

- personal beliefs
(Reeve, 2009)






- results found:
*performance is mediated by the content of goals & context of environment

*intrinsic goals ---> greater mental health, well-being, & less anxiety, depression, & risky behavior.

*Autonomous environments ---> greater motivation, persistence, learning, & test performance.
Statement of Need:
1. less controlling
2. desire to support autonomy
3. learn how
Controlling Environments:
Autonomy Supportive Environments:
Why?...
Most teachers still use a controlling teaching approach.

(Froiland, et al., 2012)

Thoughtful lesson plans
Differentiated instruction
Encourage focused feedback
Offer a variety of ways to self-monitor student's work
Think highly of students
Provide plenty of models, samples, & examples
In Summary

Variety
Active Feedback
Make it fun!
Challenge
Teach big ideas!
Give choices
Self- Determination: A theory of motivation

People tend to be driven by a need to grow and gain fulfillment
When people experience competence, connectedness, and autonomy they are able to become self-determined internally motivated

Deci & Ryan (2000)
3 Basic Psychological Needs
Competence: Experience of sense of effectiveness in interacting with one's environment

Relatedness: Need to establish mutual respect & reliance with others

Autonomy: Need to have a sense of choice and being the initiator of an action
Need- frustration
vs. Need- Supportive
Tips for Promoting Intrinsic Learning in the Classroom
-N.F: Ill-being
N.S.: Well-being, supports intrinsic learning

Next up...Activity!!
Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Motivation
Goals that promote personal growth, contribution to community, building bonds with others
Promotes academic success, health behaviors & satisfy basic psychological needs
External aspects for motivation to do an activity; use of rewards
Interfere with genuine need satisfaction, & well-being


Positive affect on children’s academic achievement
• self-concept
• academic motivation
• parental involvement
Autonomy Supportive Teaching Style
Autonomy Supportive Teaching Style:

1. providing a certain amount of choice
2. providing rationale when choice is constrained
3. trying to empathize with the learners’ perspective
4. avoiding the use of controlling language

(Sierens, Vansteenkiste, Goossens, Soenens & Dochy, 2009)
Structure in the classroom
Structure is described as involving the “communication of clear expectations with respect to student behavior”

(Sierens, Vansteenkiste, Goossens, Soenens & Dochy, 2009)
Structure & Autonomy Supportive Teaching Styles
Autonomously supportive teaching styles coupled with structure has been deemed successful only if:

-the tone of communication is respectful
-non-controlling language is used
-meaningful reason provided limitations are introduced

Positive Outcomes of Structure
1. More student engagement
2. Less passive/avoiding academic behavior
3. Satisfaction of the psychological need for competence
Misuse of Structure
Structural limitations can easily be misused within the context of a psychologically controlling teaching style

Motivation
According to SDT, motivation represents the regulation of behaviors
Motivation goals fall on a continuum ranging from externally regulated, introjection, identification to integrated regulation.
Amotivation is the lack of desire to act and leads to negative outcomes
SDT suggest people need to be internally motivated to correctly satisfy basic needs.

Extrinsic vs Intrinsic Motivation
(Froiland, Oros, Smith, & Hirchert, 2012
(Vazou, Gavrilou, Mamalaki, Papanastasiou, & Sioumala, 2012)
how integrating physical activity can affect intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, effort, value and pressure
The results revealed that physical activity integrated with academic subjects in the classroom does increase children’s intrinsic motivation, perceived competence, and effort without enhancing pressure and declining value in the lesson
Linked to positive benefits on math, reading & emotional health
Positively associated with reading more frequently, fluently and with greater comprehension
students are more likely to use effective math strategies (estimating, visualizing, and checking), and prone to select deeper performance and learning strategies
Highly engaged in their learning, experience a state of flow and enjoyment, and linked to prosocial behavior

Need- frustration
vs.
Need- supportive
-N.F. is experienced when basic psychological needs are thwarted

-N.S. fosters a sense of wellness building of inner resources (self- reliance)
Goals that promote personal growth, contribution to community, building bonds with others
External aspects for motivation to do an activity; use of rewards
Promotes academic success, health behaviors & satisfy basic psychological needs
Interfere with genuine need satisfaction, & well-being
Long term vs Short term

(Froiland, Oros, Smith, & Hirchert, 2012)
beneficial to reading, math and emotional health
use more reading strategies (rereading difficult passages, taking notes while reading) than their peers, perform better and enjoy aspects of literacy
students are more likely to use effective math strategies (estimating, visualizing, and checking), and prone to select deeper performance and learning strategies
highly engaged in their learning, experience a state of flow and enjoyment, and linked to prosocial behavior
Vansteenkiste and Ryan (2013)
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