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How did the Mongols build their empire?

A school presentation on the Mongol Empire, by Matt, George, Josh, Callum and Oliver (to be completed by 05/06/12)

Matt Rose

on 29 January 2013

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Transcript of How did the Mongols build their empire?

How Did The Mongols
Build Their Empire? Genghis
Khan The
Unification of
the Mongolian
Tribes Animals Used Mongolian
Weaponry Daily
Life in
Mongolia Politics Genghis Khan united the tribes of Mongolia. This is a
drawing of
Genghis Khan The Mongol Empire at its height At its biggest, the Mongol Empire covered 9,300,000 square miles! Food Trade Clothes Life for women Religion Genghis Khan was born to his father's clan,"Borjigin", in either 1155 or 1162, with the name of Temüjin. His mother was called Hoelun and was from the Olkhuno'ut clan. For centuries, the tribes of Mongolia had been split and divided. Temüjin traveled with his father to his mother's clan in order to find himself a wife. On the way back, his father was poisoned by members of the Tatar tribe. The Recurve Bow Swords Armour Changes in weaponry How this Affected Tactics Army
Arrangement Leaders Mongolian Tribal Politics Conquered Countries cheese Military campaigns In the 13th century, there were two major groups of food, white and brown. The white group (Tsagan-ide) consisted of dairy products, mutton and rice. The brown group was mainly meat. Generally, the white foods were eaten in Summer, and the brown in Winter. Battles When he learned of his father's death, Temüjin returned home to demand leadership of his tribe. However, they refused to be led by one so young, and abandoned Temüjin and his family. Temüjin began his rise to power by offering himself as an ally to Toghrul, his deceased father's blood brother, and a powerful khan. When Temüjin's wife was captured by the Merkit tribe, he used his new-found influence with Toghrul to get her back. When Temüjin and his allies conquered enemy tribes, instead of routing the warriors and abandoning their families (as was the mongol custom), the defeated tribesmen were adopted into Temüjin's tribe. They would then become Khan of that region Genghis was the first Khan of the united Mongolia. He launched successful campaigns against China and the Persians. Important People In Mongol History what are you doing? (pronounced Chenghis Haan) He had 3 brothers - Hasar, Hachien and Temüge and one sister, Temülen (all younger than him) as well as 2 half brothers - Behter and Belgutei (both older) All their possessions were taken by the new Khan of the tribe, and the family was abandoned to starve. They survived on their own for several years, but Temüjin and his brother, Kasar, killed Behter in a dispute over hunting spoils. There were 5 main tribal confederations who fought each other regularly, before Genghis Khan unified them Kublai Founded the Yuan dynasty (in China). After his death the empire fractured but the Yuan Emperors retained overall control. Battle Of Mohi Siege Of Baghdad These four warred much, with most of the fighting taking place between the different descendants of the sons of Genghis The siege occurred in 1258.
It was led by Hulagu Khan and Chinese vice-captain Guo Kan.
One tenth of all male Mongolians alive at the time attended the siege.
Hulagu asked for surrender but islamic Abbasid Empire caliph refused.
Hulagu split his men in two; half on east side, half on west side of River Tigris.
The Mongols broke some dikes, and caused Tigris to flood ground behind the enemy army.
They were trapped and slaughtered or drowned.
Hulagu then ordered his men to viciously sack the city.
There was a week of massacre, looting, rape, and destruction.
It was considered the end of the Islamic Golden Age. The Battle of Mohi occurred at Muhi in 1241.
It was the main and most significant battle against Hungary during the Mongolian Invasion of Europe.
Hungarian guards placed on the bridge were destroyed by Chinese firearms and stone-throwing machines.
The Mongols lost many soldiers when the Hungarian Army fought them on other side of bridge.
Other Mongols crossed on a temporary Mongol-built bridge. They attacked the Hungarian flanks.
The Mongols left a gap for the Hungarians to flee. They sent men to kill the now widely dispersed Hungarians.
The Mongols then invaded Hungary. http://en.wikipedia.org/
http://www.mongolia-web.com/ Decimal System:
10 men (an Arav)
100 men (a Zuut)
1,000 men (a Minghan)
10,000 men (a Tumen)
Each had a leader reporting to the next higher level. Training Mongols trained vigorously
Trained with animals- learning battle and hunting techniques Intelligence Mongols often wanted to get to high ground to gain information on the enemy and to give flag commands to the army.
Mongols sent out scouting or spying parties.
They established trading routes, roads, rivers, size and quality of garrisons and the willingness to resist against the Mongols.
When they besieged a settlement they would know if they could divert a river, where to stop the supplies from coming in and the size of the army that would be needed to besiege the settlement. Kublai Khan The Mongols had lived in the Steppes of Mongolia for generations, and, with much fighting between the tribes, had evolved into powerful fighters. His Childhood His Rise to Greatness The Mongols Empire was lead by the Khans: they were the descendants of Genghis Khan. After the death of Kublai khan the Empire split into four khanates These were the Chagatai khanate the Ilkhanate, the Golden Horde and the Great Yuan Empire. The Mongols conquered many countries. Once they had conquered a country they left trusted people to run it Then the khan would often give the conquered regions to his kinsmen. The Mongolian Empire at the time of Genghis Khan's death To put it in perspective... Psychological Warfare The mongols used psychological warfare to deceive and intimidate the enemy.
Made themselves look bigger=enemy surrender=fewer casualties+new recruits from surrendering enemy.
They did this by: making 1 man light 5 fires, tying branches to cavalry (to create massive dust cloud) and putting prisoners on spare horses.
Mongols let a few citizens escape when attacking a settlement to spread word of their ferocity and ruthlessness. This struck terror in people.
The reputation made it more likely that the enemy would surrender=fewer casualties+new recruits. The Mongols used daggers and swords, but the most often used and well know one is the Scimitar, which was sharp, serrated and curved.
Also known as the Turco Mongol Sabre. It was given to all soldiers in the army and was a simply made, one handed blade.
The Sabre was easy to use and it could effectively cut through helmets. Battle Formation Often Tumens were five rows deep and very broad with the first 3 rows archers and the last 2 being lancers.
However formation greatly differed depending on the battle plan and the situation. Mongol warriors were trained to fire their bows at the calm point in a gallop, when all four of their horses' hooves had left the ground. The Mongol charge was devastating and could swiftly change the course of a battle. Military Tactics The Khwarezmian
Campaign At first, Genghis Khan tried to set up peaceful trade connections. The Shah (equivalent of Khan) allowed the governor of Otrar (where the trade convoy went) to execute the peaceful merchants as spies. The Shah refused to pay compensation, and killed one of the messengers who delivered the Khan's message (shaving the other two bald). Genghis Khan (who had thought of messengers as sacred and untouchable, took this as a personal affront. He began the military campaign in the year 1219, and within two years, had invaded all of the Khwarezmian Empire doubling the size of his own. There were many factors that caused this great success: 1: Intelligence. The Mongols had spies in Khwarezmia even before they sent the trade convoy, and they made sure they knew as much about their enemy as possible before they attacked. 2: Planning. As with all of their many campaigns, the Mongolian generals had planned the campaign meticulously, based on the intelligence gathered by their many spies. 3: Siege warfare. The Mongols had learned from their Jin experience, and came prepared with lots of new weapons including, some historians speculate, gunpowder mortars. To make this even better, the Khwarezmians did not realise that the Mongols had learned from their mistakes, and had prepared for an army unused to sieges. 4:Tactics. Genghis Khan and his trusted generals used very professional tactics, cutting off escape routes, using a pincer movement to surround the city of Samarkand, and even crossing a dangerous desert using information from nomads who lived there, to take the city of Bukhura. Typical Mongol
Battle Tactics Outflanking the enemy.
Pretending to flee, and then shooting backwards in a feigned retreat or luring the enemy into a trap, perhaps a wood with hidden Mongol troops.
Separating opposition- shooting at enemy forcing them to disperse but making them vulnerable to lancer attack. If they come together in phalanx they are vulnerable to arrows. Strengths Their ponies were agile and the soldiers had light armour so the ponies were could track down larger horses.
They had stirrups so the archers could shoot 360 degrees.
They trained to shoot when all four hooves were off the ground to improve accuracy.
Archery was the Mongols' main strength.
Their ordered chain-of-command allowed them to separate there troops and use cunning tactics like the feigned retreat into a trap. Genghis
Khan The Mongol scimitar was usually 3 feet long and could cut a man in half through his helmet. 1205 Conquest of the Song Dynasty Kublai Khan Emperor Lizong
Of Song The invasion occurred between 1235-79.
The Mongols and the Song were allies during the defeat of the Jin Dynasty.
In 1233 Song general Meng Gong defeated Jin general Wu Xian and besieged Caizhou where the last Emperor of the Jurchen fled.
Mongols agreed to share the land but when the Song came to retake the old Song capitals they were repelled by Mongol garrisons.
From then on the sons of Ögedei Khan started there slow invasion south. Chengdu Sichuan Xiangyang At first the Song could fight the Mongols off in Sichuan as most of the Mongols were fighting elsewhere (e.g. Europe). 1239
General Meng Gong Of Song regained Xiangyang and the Song maintained the stronghold of Sichuan. 1242 Mongols successfully invaded several cities, accepted a ceasefire and then their troops returned to fight. 1251 Möngke was elected as
Great Khan. 1258 Möngke Khan entered Sichuan with two
thirds of the Mongol Army. 1260 Kublai Khan was elected Great
Khan after Mongke died. He and
Chinese General Jia Sidao set out
to destroy the Song Dynasty. Birds Of Prey Men have used birds of prey to hunt in western Mongolia since the 15th century. Genghis Khan is said to have had over 5,000 "eagle riders" in his personal guard from Gyr Falcons to Golden Eagles which were taken from their nests and trained.
The animals that were caught were used for food and clothes in the harsh winters.
During their time the birds were always treated with respect and honour and were given the lungs of the animal they caught.
In the later lives of the birds, they would have served their purpose and would be released back into the wild. Horses Described as short and stout the Mongol horse was a very hardy and tough. The horse played an important role in the success of Mongol conquests
One advantage for the Mongols was the ponies live longer and require less food for survival. They were excellent foragers in the extreme steppe winters.
The Mares were also used for milk which is called Airagh and their blood when milk was short .
The Mares were also used for milk which is called Airagh and their blood when milk was short .
The population of their traveling herd would be roughly 475,000 mares and geldings. The average age for a Mongolian child to start riding was three and became expert riders in under a year. Mongolian helmets were made from iron for the top part and leather for the parts that covered the neck and ears. Since the climate in Mongolia was cold, fur hats with ear flaps were worn.
Most helmets had a pointed top that had a tail made of horse hair on the top.
The Mongols used a small and lightweight round shield made of wound wicker covered by leather. Even though it looks weak, the shield can block arrows, swords, and knives.
A typical Mongolian breastplate consisted of leather that was covered by lacquer which made a protective coating on it.
Under the breastplate warriors wore silk as a protective garment. The silk was light and tough and would stay intact even if it was pierced by an arrow. The secret to the Mongol warrior’s success was to be as mobile and swift as he could be. The Mongol people were virtually born in the saddle and were highly skilled horsemen, horses were part of their culture.
Horses brought them mobility and speed both of which were important in battle and determined their tactics.
The Mongol warrior’s preferred to fight in the open and to choose the place and time of their attack. Their choices of weapon therefore were those that could be used on horseback.
They would carry a battle axe, a curved sword known as a scimitar, a lance or spear and a recurved bow.
When they conquered Chinese territory they took on their chinese gunpowder weapons such as the exploding bombs. Previously they had lacked in siege equipment but they learnt from other countries and then had the most advanced siege weaponry in the world. Their reputation preceded them and their use of circling horseman, waves of arrows and feigned retreats were feared.
Their enemies learnt to hide in their fortresses and cities and tried to avoid meeting the Mongols in the open where they were at their strongest.
They used these giant catapults to hurl giant boulders at the city walls of their enemies.
They were a highly disciplined and well organised army who adapted their tactics and weaponry as necessary but were most feared and at their strongest on horseback where they best won control and defeated their enemies. Battle of the Badger Mouth Mongol (led by Genghis Khan)
Jin (led by Emperor Weishaowang)

The place of battle was chosen by the Jin.
Some Mongols broke off, scaled a hill and drove downwards into the Jin.
It was a decisive Mongol victory
Almost all of the 400 000 - 500 000 Jin were left dead.
Mongols could not capitalize on the free walk to Beijing that the victory had enabled them Battle of Zhongdu Mongols (led by Genghis Khan)
Jin (led by Emperor Xuanzong)

It was a decisive Mongol victory
The Jin were forced to move their capital Southward
The Jin inhabitants were massacred Given power over Northern China under Mongke Khan
Successfully invaded Yunnan under his brother the Khan's orders, and spared residents
Became Great Khan
Civil war over position of Great Khan.
Defeated Southern Song
Unsuccessfully attempted invasion of Eastern Asian countries Mongke Khan Conducted Census over Empire
Reformed taxation system.
Instructed Kublai Khan to invade Yunnan
Advanced through Middle East
Died during attempted invasion of Southern Song The Recurve-Bow is a type of composite bow (that has a Recurve form.) These bows originated with the Mongols of ancient Asia and were very much a part of their life for hunting as well as warfare.
Mongol bows were composite in structure; the core wood with the belly usually being horn and the back sinew. Ancient Mongols often wrapped their bows in various material to help with their preservation and when not use the bows were stored in protective cases.
It has also been theorized that the flats acted as a string stop to give the arrow a cleaner release and a higher speed coming off of the string. Genghis Khan came from this direction This campaign showed that the Mongols were an adaptable fighting force, and changed tactics depending on their opposition. They had learnt from their mistakes and come back from a slow campaign in China to take the Khwarezmians by surprise. Tolui Tolui was the youngest son of Genghis Khan.

He had 4 sons by his first wife, Sorghaghtani: Mongke,
and Arik Boke.

He fought alongside his brothers and father in the Jin, Khwarezmian and XI Xia campaigns

He played a vital role in the Khwarezmian campaign, ordering the executions of hundreds of thousands of innocent civilians, and earning the Mongols a reputation for ruthlessness, and even evil.

When Genghis Khan died, Tolui acted as regent of the Mongol Empire until his brother Ögedei could take over.

Tolui inherited the vast majority of his father's army - 100,000 soldiers out 130,000. He also received a small Khanate around the Mongolian homeland.

According to "The Secret History of the Mongols", Tolui killed himself to save Ögedei in a shamanistic ritual. Toghrul grew suspicious of Temujin and attempted to assasinate him. The attempt failed, and Toghrul fled. Toghrul fought many rival tribes, including his blood brother (Jamukha)'s tribe. He defeated and united them all, before forming a huge army and starting the invasions that would take all of Asia. An idiot deleted the timeline. We apologise for an inconvience this may cause. Battle of Ayn Jalut Hulagu had left Syria after Mongke Khan's death.
It was left under Kitbuqa's rule. He was a Mongol general.
Kitbuqa only had 20,000 soldiers left in Syria, so the Mamluks attacked the weakened force.
The Mamluks had about the same number of men, and fought similarly to Mongols (on horseback with bows and arrows as well as swords)
The two armies met on September 3rd, 1260.
The Mamluks knew the area well, and were able to hide a large part of their force nearby, in some high ground.
The Mongols attacked first, but after several hours fighting, neither side had a clear advantage: thanks to Mamluk hit and run tactics, they had never really got into a sustained combat situation.
The Mamluks then used a feigned retreat to lead the Mongols into the trap.
The Mongols were surrounded on all sides and trapped.
They fought to the last man, and were annihilated.
Despite many invasions, the Mongols never again took Syria for more than a few months at a time.
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