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Transcript of MEMS Technology
Mr. Devendra Soni
(Asst. Professor, ECE, PIET)
(Deputy HOD, ECE, PIET) Delivered by:-
Ravindra Shrikant Kelkar
EC-B, IV Yr, VII Sem
Poornima Institute of Engg. & Technology A
MICRO-ELECTRO-MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS) Contents Materials for MEMS Introduction MEMS Basic Processes Components of MEMS Fabrication MEMS Process Integration Current Challenges Applications Conclusion Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems, or MEMS, is a technology that in its most general form can be defined as "miniaturized mechanical and electro-mechanical elements (i.e., devices and structures) that are made by using the techniques of micro fabrication".MEMS are separate and distinct from the hypothetical vision of molecular nanotechnology or molecular electronics. MEMS are made up of components between 1 to 100 micrometres in size (i.e. 0.001 to 0.1 mm), and MEMS devices generally range in size from 20 micrometres (20 millionths of a metre) to a millimetre (i.e. 0.02 to 1.0 mm). They usually consist of a central unit that processes data (the microprocessor) and several components that interact with the outside such as micro-sensors. Micro-actuator Micro-sensor Micro-electronics Micro-structure Components
MEMS A Micro-actuator is a microscopic servomechanism that supplies and transmits a measured amount of energy for the operation of another mechanism or system. As a general actuator, following standards have to be met.
Low power consumption
Power free force sustainability A Micro-sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. A thermocouple converts temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter. For accuracy, most sensors are calibrated against known standards. Micro-electronics is a subfield of electronics. These devices are made from semiconductors. Many components of normal electronic design are available in microelectronics. Equivalent: transistors, capacitors, inductors, resistors, diodes & of course insulators and conductors can all be found in microelectronic devices. Micro-structure is defined as the structure of a prepared surface. The microstructure of a material (which can be broadly classified into metallic, polymeric, ceramic and composite) can strongly influence physical properties such as strength, toughness, ductility, hardness, corrosion resistance, high/low temperature behavior, wear resistance, and so on, which in turn govern the application of these materials in industrial practice. Silicon is the material used to create most integrated circuits used in consumer electronics in the modern world. Silicon Polymers Polymers on the other hand can be produced in huge volumes, with a great variety of material characteristics. Metals Metals can also be used to create MEMS elements. While metals do not have some of the advantages displayed by silicon in terms of mechanical properties, when used within their limitations, metals can exhibit very high degrees of reliability. Deposition Physical
Deposition Sputtering Evaporation LPCVD PECVD Patterning Lithography Etching Wet Etching Dry Etching Bulk
Micro-machining Wafer Bonding The oldest micro-machining technology is bulk micro-machining.
This technique involves the selective removal of the substrate material in order to realize miniaturized mechanical components.
Bulk micro-machining can be accomplished using chemical or physical means, with chemical means being far more widely used in the MEMS industry. The surface micro-machining involves a sequence of steps starting with the deposition of some thin-film material to act as a temporary mechanical layer onto which the actual device layers are built; followed by the deposition and patterning of the thin-film device layer of material which is referred to as the structural layer; then followed by the removal of the temporary layer to release the mechanical structure layer from the constraint of the underlying layer, thereby allowing the structural layer to move. The wafer bonding is a micro-machining method that is analogous to welding in the macro scale world and involves the joining of two (or more) wafers together to create a multi-wafer stack.
There are three basic types of wafer bonding including: direct or fusion bonding; field-assisted or anodic bonding; and bonding using an intermediate layer.
In general, all bonding methods require substrates that are very flat, smooth, and clean, in order for the wafer bonding to be successful and free of voids. Sealing Wafer MEMS Device Wafer Bond Shearing
(Chips Formation) The ability to integrate multiple functionality onto a single microchip is called MEMS Process Integration.
Per unit device or microchip cost of complex miniaturized electromechanical systems can be radically reduced.
Miniaturized sensors and actuators are of great importance.
Increased portability, lower power consumption, ability to place more functionality in a smaller amount of space.
The ability to make the signal paths smaller and place radically more functionality.
In short, they have lower costs, higher functionality, improved reliability and increased performance. Access to
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