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The Crucible Background

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Amy Rawlings

on 6 September 2018

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Transcript of The Crucible Background

The Crucible

Arthur Miller 1953
The Puritans
Malleus Maleficarum written by Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Sprenger, Inquisitors of the Catholic Church, and was first published in Germany in 1487 handbook for finding and trying witches-
“I have here in my hand a list of 205 that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist party, and who nevertheless are still working and shaping the policy in the State Department.”
communal ownership of property and means of production
1947-1957 2nd Red Scare
The Communist Manifesto by
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Smith Act of 1940
- 41 “friendly witnesses”
- Hollywood Ten took the 5th
- 320 blacklisted, including Miller
1. Total Depravity
2. Limited Atonement
3. Irresistible Grace
4. Unconditional Election
5. Perseverance
No ritual for forgiving sins in Puritan belief
Puritan Behavior
Because of their belief in Predestination-
1. Signs
2. Daily events
3. A reason for everything
4. God’s hand
Beliefs and Values
Literal interpretation of the Bible
Explicit readings of the Bible
No rituals, adornments, no singing, and no music
Concentrate on God
Constant struggle
God rewards the good and punishes the wicked.
Education and Work Ethic
A virtuous, self-examined life
Strict discipline and a strong work ethic
Qualities that led to economic success were virtuous
They valued education
Children far away from the evils of England
No Games
Boys- hunting and fishing
Girls- how to run a household
Witch Craze
Witch Trials in Europe
Depiction of the Devil giving magic puppets to witches, from Agnes Sampson trial, 1591.
exterminated all females in a village
In 1600's 900 witches burned
in Bamberg, Germany
5, 000 in Alsace, France
Reasons for Witch Hunts
Misfits in society
Personal Grudges
In 1572 the Criminal Constitutions of Electoral Saxony declared, for example, that 'if anyone, forgetting his Christian faith, sets up a pact with the devil or has anything to do with him, regardless of whether he has harmed anyone by magic, he should be condemned to death by fire'. With a law such as this, one could proceed to torture a suspect until one had not only an admission of guilt but a list of the names of others seen at the witches' dance. These persons could then in turn be examined and tortured if necessary. A panic might be under way. ( H.C. Erik Midelfort)
Background of Witch Trials in Salem
Climate of Fear even without considering witchcraft
1686: Charter Revoked
1691: Smallpox Epidemic
Ongoing Indian Raids
Salem Town vs. Salem Village
1692: Rev. Parris' daughter and neice
Girls Accused Tituba,
Sarah Osborne,
Sarah Goode
Doc said nothing physically wrong = witchcraft!
The Red Scares
1917- Russian Revolution
1st Red Scare
2nd Red Scare
Ethel & Julius
USSR gets atomic bomb
Increased Soviet Oppression
in Eastern Europe
Chinese Civil War
Korean War
Berlin Blockade
Effects of Red Scare
Ronald Regan
Humphrey Bogart
Arthur Miller
Full transcript