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Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation Chapter 4

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Johnny Perez

on 21 August 2014

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Transcript of Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation Chapter 4

One of the major responsibilities of a public administrator will always consist of planning, implementing and evaluating a program. It will always involve more than one person and it is important to set a common goal and shoot for it. Timing is also crucial because as one is planning a certain program, another one is in the process of being implemented while a third is being evaluated.
Evaluation is important to assess whether the program achieved its' goal in an efficient manner
Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation (Chapter 4)
Planning involves the collection of data and information in order to develop alternative courses of action to a problem and the best course of action will be taken.
Once a policy is chosen, everything from finances, resources, collaboration with other organizations and the community is put into motion.
Policy Analysis
Costs & Benefits
Systems Analysis
Designs & Techniques
by Johnny Perez
All managers take are involved in planning
Extensive data must be collected
Usually involves a wide range of professionals
program coordinators, supervisors, financial advisers and employees from other departments
Planning can be the easiest part or program planning or the toughest. This depends on the people you are working with
State the objectives
What is the issue at hand? What needs to be fixed? What does the community need?
Environmental Analysis
Legal and political considerations
Where will this program take place? What is the target audience? What is the budget?

Strengths and weaknesses
Financial resources available
Human resources
Technology available
Organizational Leaders' Values
discuss the organizations interests and values
different views allows for creative alternatives to a problem
Alternative strategies
develop alternatives taking into account how they will affect the future
pick the one that best fits the goal or objective of the program
Developing alternative solutions to a problem and choosing the best one. There are 5 steps.
1. Define the problem
2. Set objectives and criteria
3. Develop alternatives
4. Analyze all the alternatives
5. Rank and choose the one that fits the program and organization's goals
Compares alternatives by calculating their total costs and benefits in order to make the best choice.
costs are usually monetary while benefits are measured differently
did the program change a behavior? did it provide what was intended?
With the HIV/STD awareness program example:
collaborate with an organization that provides HIV/STD curriculum
work with the city to set up a location and funds for the program
communicate with the community in order to make the program known
Example: You want to start a HIV/STD awareness program in your local community. How much would it cost to obtain the curriculum? Who will come out and teach it and how much would it cost? Would teaching the community about the dangers of HIV and STDs change their behaviors?
In many public health programs, the benefits aren't always immediately apparent and this can be a challenge to public health professionals in gaining support for such programs
There are many obstacles that can be faced when implementing a program:
cooperative city and neighborhood officials
unifying your mission with that of the city's
participation of the intended audience
A system used to understand external and internal variables that can affect the organizations performance
input from environment affects what is produced or the output
something goes in and something comes out
The Administrative System
Feedback Loop
Outcomes evaluation: focuses on the results of the program and if the goal was met
Process evaluation: focuses on ways that the program can be improved in the implementations phase
Program evaluation consists of the numbers, statistics and logistics of a program. This is usually carried out by a separate person, an evaluator, but many times, organizations don't have this luxury, so the responsibility falls upon the administrator.
Evaluation of a successful program helps the continuance of its' funding
There are many techniques to evaluating a program.
Qualitative: information gathered from all actors and participants to formulate the programs effectiveness
Quantitative: a control group and an experimental group undergo an intervention or are withheld and the results of both groups are compared to see if there was a positive or negative outcome to the intervention
This is the most common technique as it makes use of the scientific method
Denhardt, R., & Denhardt, J. (2013). Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation. In Public Administration: An Action Orientation (7th ed., pp. 123-150). Boston, MA: Suzanne Jeans.
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