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Transcript of 4SA526-Egovernment

Information systems for citizens, companies, tourists etc.
Crime statistics by geographic area within the city; data on trash removal, street cleaning, temporary no-parking areas, street construction works, health threats (e.g., increased occurrence of flu), air pollution
2. Stages of E-Government
Information (<1>, p. 2)
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
Opportunities to participate
Databases develop from static to dynamic
File civil complaints and public proposals, comment on policy making
Requests can be made for abandoned vehicle or graffiti removal, porthole repair, change in traffic signs…
Communication (<5>, p. 12)
2.2 Detail
In integrated stage: Increased level of general safety (e.g., crime,
Supports fight against corruption
Likely to improve political commitment and participation
3.3 For Society (<6>, p. 3-6; <7>, p. 3)
3. Advantages of E-Government
E-Government results in win-win situation for all involved…
Law has to be “updated” to be ready for e-government
Electronic documents and transactions must be legally recognized
Requirement of written form
Digital vs. handwritten signature
4.2 Law and Web-Accessibility
4. Critical Issues
Law (<7>, p. 13; <10>, p. 6; <11>, p. 17)
Content should be accessible for elderly and disabled persons
Use of plain language
Structures have to be easy to understand
Text-equivalents for audio-visual elements necessary
Utilization of standards
Web-Accessibility (<12>, p. 3)
Figure: Regional average of e-government readiness (2008)
Example: Germany
≈1000 administrative services available online (2008)
6. Ranking and Example
39% of citizens used information services online (2007)
26% downloaded official forms (2007)
17% sent forms that were completed on the internet (2007)
10% of all income tax returns were completed and sent online (2007)
(<14>, p. 19, 36; <15>; <16>; <17>)
1.2 Dimensions of E-Government
1. Introduction
Categorization of stakeholders of a government
Other levels or functions within same nation
Governments of other nations
1.3 Spheres of Government Interaction (<3>, p.1)
1. Introduction
Termini for interaction with different stakeholders are following e-commerce:
C2G and G2C
B2G and G2B

N2G and G2N
Online forms as first step
Processing of requests with electronic solutions
Tax and duty payments, license applications and renewals, grant applications and renewals etc.
Electronic payment systems necessary for fees and tariffs
2.2 Detail
2. Stages of E-Government
Transaction (<3>, p. 3-4)
1) Vertical integration
Integration of scattered systems at different government levels (local, state, federal)
2) Horizontal integration
Across different functional walls
Databases across areas share information
One-stop shop for government services
Integration (<4>, p. 129-133)
4.1 Privacy and Security (<7>, p. 15)
4. Critical Issues
Privacy (<4>, p. 134; <9>, p. 6)
Security (<8>, p. 3)
Without high level of privacy and security warranted,
e-government will not gain acceptance by stakeholders…
Electronic voting (e-voting) ≠ Internet voting (i-voting)
E-Voting: Concerns polling station technology, electronic machines at the place where voters come to take part in an election
I-Voting: Voting via internet. One of the most talked-about issue in participatory topics
USA: Prior to the 2000 presidential election, majority opposed to e-voting. Following the controversy in Florida, people started to favor e-voting (65% of respondents)
UK: 20% would vote online (2001)
1st adopted by Swiss canton Geneva (in 2004)
Higher voter participation expected
Remains controversial topic (due to prolonged privacy and security concerns)
5. E-Voting
(<13>, p. 7, 34; <14>, p. 107)
<10> Fischlin, M., Giessler, A., Nitschke, R. & Ritter, H. (2005a). Verschlüsselung und Signatur. E-Government-Handbuch, Kapitel 2. Available at www.e-government-handbuch.de
<11> Fischlin, M., Giessler, A., Nitschke, R. & Ritter, H. (2005b). Authentisierung im E-Government. E-Government-Handbuch, Kapitel 4. Available at www.e-government-handbuch.de
<12> Berninger, S., Bühler, C., Luckhardt, B., Reins, F. & Scheer, B. (2005). Barrierefreies E-Government. E-Government-Handbuch, Kapitel 4. Available at www.e-government-handbuch.de
<13> Brack, A. & Noble, P. (2001). E-Democracy around the World: A Survey for the Bertelsmann Foundation. Available at www.esterkaufman.com.ar/varios/mi%20web/E-democracy%20around%20the%20world.pdf
<14> United Nations [UN]. (2008). United Nations e-Government Survey 2008: From e-Government to Connected Government. Available at unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UN/UNPAN028607.pdf
<15> Die Bundesregierung. (2008). Verwaltung innovativ: E-Government in Deutschland. Available at www.verwaltung-innovativ.de
<16> Stiftung Digitale Chancen [SDC]. (2008). Die Zeit ist reif für Verwaltung 2.0. Available at www.stepping-stones.de
<17> SDC. (2007). BITKOM: 4.6 Millionen Online-Steuererklärungen im Jahr 2006. Available at www.digitale-chancen.de
Literature (II/II)

Andreas R. Staginnus
E-Government = Electronic Government

“The production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies“
(<1>, p. 1)

Redefines the relationships between public servants and the wider society (<2>, p. 1)
Terms used as well: Digital Government, Virtual Government, Online-Government, e-gov (<1>, p. 1)
1.1 Definition
1. Introduction
2.1 Overview about Stages (Following <4>, Fig. 1, p. 124)
2. Stages of E-Government
Level of Integration
Reorganization and acceleration of processes
 increased performance and quality
Prevention of media breaks
Avoidance of tasks such as:
Preparative and subsequent editing of data to match systems
Transportation of files
Archive related activities
Increased satisfaction of stakeholders results in better acceptance and support of government

 Most important from government perspective: Cost savings
3.1 For Government (<6>, p. 3-6)
3. Advantages of E-Government
Less processing time
Increased transparency
Higher convenience
Less time required
Services and data available 24/7
Possibility to track status of progress
Especially advantageous to disabled persons
Gerhard Schröder, 2000 (German then-Chancellor):

“The data shall run, not the citizens”
3.2 For Stakeholders (<6>, p. 3-6)
3. Advantages of E-Government
6. Ranking and Example
<1> Fountain, J.E. (2004). Digital Government and Public Health. Preventing Chronic Disease, 1, 1-5.
<2> Sheridan, W. & Riley, T.B. (2006). Comparing E-Government vs. E-Governance. Available at www.electronicgov.net
<3> Von Lucke, J. & Reinermann, H. (2000). Speyerer Definition von Electronic Government [Online-Publication]. Available at foev.dhv-speyer.de/ruvii
<4> Layne, K. & Lee, J. (2001). Developing Fully Functional E-Government: A Four Stage Model. Government Information Quarterly, 18, 122-136.
<5> U.S. General Services Administration [GSA]. (2007). How E-Government is Changing Society and Strengthening Democracy. USA Services Intergovernmental Newsletter, 20. Available at www.gsa.gov/intergovnewsletter
<6> Hauschild, T. (2005). Chefsache E-Government. E-Government-Handbuch, Kapitel 1. Available at www.e-government-handbuch.de
<7> The World Bank. (2002). The E-Government Handbook for Developing Countries. Available at www.cdt.org/egov/handbook/2002-11-14egovhandbook.pdf
<8> Baum, J. (2005). IT-Sicherheit: Es geht nicht ohne. E-Government-Handbuch, Kapitel 1. Available at www.e-government-handbuch.de
<9> West, D.M. (2007). Global E-Government, 2007. Available at www.insidepolitics.org
Literature (I/II)
Stages of E-Government
Advantages of E-Government
Critical Issues
Ranking and Example

1. Introduction
2. Stages of E-Government
3. Advantages of E-Government
4. Critical Issues
5. E-Voting
Fair Vote rules:

Problems -

Full transcript