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Miranda Walls

on 2 June 2013

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Transcript of 4.4.1

4.4.1 At the Start
1. We have talked about the central and peripheral nervous systems. We know that the peripheral nervous system relays signals to and from the spinal cord. But this system is divided yet again. What are the two main divisions of the peripheral nervous system? How do these systems relate to the three types of muscle?

Sensory Nervous System - sends information to the CNS from internal organs or from external stimuli.
Motor Nervous System - Controls skeletal muscle as well as external sensory organs (Somatic Nervous System). Controls involuntary muscles, such as smooth and cardiac muscle (Autonomic Nervous System)

2. Why is the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system active just before the race?
The autonomic nervous system causes the fight or flight response (stay or fun away). When she is about to start the race, Mary feels anxious and is getting pumped up which causes his autonomic nervous system to active.

3. How does the nervous system influence other body systems at the start of the race?
As hormones (adrenalin, etc.) are released by the autonomic nervous system, the heart and breathing rate both speed up. 1. Running at a sprint puts new demands on Mary’s body. What are these demands and how are they being met?
Her demands is that she needs oxygen to transport to the muscle which eliminates metabolic wastes and reduction of heat. 1 Minute Into The Race Halfway Through the Race At the Finish 1. What division of the autonomic nervous system is at work now? How does this division impact Mary’s other body systems? 10 minutes after the race

1. Why does Mary feel dizzy at the end of the race?
More blood is being pumped to Mary’s muscles than to her head. She may also be dehydrated.

2. Why is Mary’s heart rate and breathing rate so high even though she has stopped moving?
Mary’s heart rate has not come down into recovery mode yet.

3. Why did Mary only sip water at the end of the race? What could happen if she drank water too fast?
Sipping water can help decrease the risk for kidney damage. Also, drinking too much water would increase her blood volume therefore increasing her blood pressure. 4. What is happening to the digestive and urinary systems at the start of the race? Why?
As stress levels from the anticipation of the race rise, Mary starts to sweat which causes changes in the urinary system.

5. What is happening to Mary’s blood glucose levels right before the race? Relate this change to energy and ATP.
Right before the race, her blood glucose levels rise to help produce energy needed for the workout.

6. Why does her mouth feel dry?
Since Mary is sweating because of the heat and anticipation, she is slowly becoming dehydrated. When this happens, the body responds by not producing as much saliva. 2. Why do Mary’s muscles feel like they are burning? Relate this burn to information about ATP production.
Mary is probably running fast enough that her muscles runs out of oxygen and start relying on anaerobic respiration which produces ATP but has lactic acid as a waste product. By: Heidi Schneemann, Htet Lin, Miranda Walls, and Ashley Kovach-Hammons 4. Why do Mary’s muscles still feel so sore? 2. Explain how Mary could have lost four pounds in such a short period of time.
3. How will Mary’s actions and her endocrine system work to bring her body back into water balance? Mary was sweating while she ran the race. She lost a lot of the water in her body. This could explain her sudden weight loss. 3. Why does Mary’s respiratory rate increase as she starts to run? Provide two reasons.
As she starts to run most of her muscles starts to speed up the metabolism. As she she runs out of energy and needs to produce energy which requires oxygen to keep running. So the increased need of energy causes her body to starve for oxygen so she has to breathe harder for the oxygen to come in. The Parasympathetic Division of Autonomic Nervous system is at work now. After running the race, the parasympathetic nervous system will slow the heart rate, let more oxygen into the lungs and relax the muscles in Mary's body. Lactic Acid is present in the muscles making her muscles feel sore. During the hard exercise, her muscle fibers tore, so her body must grow the muscle fibers back making the muscles stronger. 4. How does Mary’s increase in heart rate relate to cardiac output? As her heart increases the cardiac output increases if the stroke volume remains the same. If she slowly drinks more water, she can restore the electrolytes to her cells and rehydrate her body. Halfway through the race, Mary's body temperature rises due to more energy being used up within the muscles. This energy is then released in the form of heat. The muscle contraction used for her movements produces by-products, like lactic acid. The hypothalamus recognizes this rise in temperature and stimulates the sweat glands to sweat. By sweating, the body is able to cool down. The urinary system balances out this loss of water with what is filtered out of the blood; it doesn't get rid of as much water. She made sure she drank water and was hydrated before the race. This makes sure she doesn't get as dehydrated from sweating and the like. Muscles' energy supply... Your muscles' first source of energy is known as Creatine Phosphate. It is stored in Muscles. It can be added to ADP to create a supply of ATP. This energy supply lasts for 8-10 seconds. It is known as the Phosphagen System. Your muscles' second source of energy is Glycogen. This comes from the liver. Cells use anaerobic respiration (without oxygen). This creates ATP and Lactic Acid. This energy supply lasts for 90 seconds. By this time in the middle of the race, Mary would have used up both of these energy supplies. Your muscles' third source of energy is ATP through cellular respiration. By now, oxygen could reach the muscle cells, so it can break down glucose molecules. Cellular respiration requires oxygen, so it is a form of aerobic respiration. Glucose produces more ATP than the other sources of energy. Net: 36 per glucose Because Glucose is easier to break down with oxygen and cellular respiration produces more ATP, Mary feels more comfortable at this point of the race than she did previously. Nice running, Mary! 5. How does the nervous system interact with the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to increase the blood flow to the muscles? The flow of blood through the vessels the circulatory system is a function of the pressure in the system and the resistance to flow caused by the blood vessels. If the pressure in the vessel increases then the blood flow will increase. http://goanimate.com/videos/0O9rQjebawOY?utm_source=linkshare http://goanimate.com/videos/0pOfYnIhadpY?utm_source=linkshare http://goanimate.com/videos/0N8FDAKaLPOk?utm_source=linkshare http://goanimate.com/videos/0mqnxfy71VPs?utm_source=linkshare Four Goanimate videos are included before each part of the race. They explain what is going on with Mary, a 3 year track veteran who is competing in the mile-long event for the first time. Sonic Mary: Part 1 Sonic Mary: Part 2 Sonic Mary: Part 3 Sonic Mary: Part 4
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