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TOK - final presentation DP2
Transcript of TOK - final presentation DP2
Holocaust denier since 1977
Author of several controversial books - Hitler's war To what extent can knowledge
be interpreted as a certainty when the applicable methods of justification are used in different areas of knowledge? HISTORICAL REVISIONISM reinterpretation of orthodox views on evidence surrounding a historical event
four types, one of which is negationsism, often seen as the most dangerous form, as it can change the way we see the world, and what David Irving claims. DAVID IRVING “the historical truth and that I alone have been getting it right.” JUDGE AT IRVING VS. LIPSTADT “Irving has for his own ideological reasons persistently and deliberately misrepresented and manipulated historical evidence,” Two contrasting knowledge claims; so who is right? That is what our knowledge issue explores. WAYS OF KNOWING Ways of knowing in history The paradigm shift Ways of knowing WOK in human science Ways of knowing in natural sciences strengths Strengths Limitations Limitations Limitations Sense perception subjectivity vs. objectivity
"power of thin slicing" Emotion strongest WOK can be unreliable
seen as an obstruction to knowledge and a primary source of knowledge “When we talk about analytic versus intuitive decision making, neither is good or bad. What is bad is if you use either of them in inappropriate circumstances.” -Paul Van Riper Language Reason cultural/social bias
controversy always gains attention, some historians use it as a tool THE KEYNESIAN REVOLUTION Transition from Ptolemaic to Copernican cosmology CONCLUSION To what extent can knowledge be interpreted as a certainty when the applicable methods of justification are used in different areas of knowledge? it's influenced is often unnoticed transmisses concepts through generations Problem in meaning
Persuasive language “Error flies from mouth to mouth, from pen to pen, and to destroy it takes ages.” Voltaire -the way in which we accept facts and draw conclusion, which become our knowledge "A chain of reasoning is no stronger than its weakest link". -Anonymous -rational vs. irrational reasoning - informal fallacies Real life situation 2 major shift in macroeconomics by John Maynard Keynes, a British economist contradicted the popular economic concept known as Say's law, which stated that underemployment and investment were virtually impossible Monetarist economists held the view that only monetary policies were needed to control the economy, whereas Keynesian economists believed both monetary and fiscal economics were needed [elaborate on both]. Keynesians later adopted the Monetarists view of the quantity theory of money as well as the Philips curve, theories they initially rejected. Sense perception Emotion Language Reason selection of events historians discuss gives meaning to the context of historical facts
shapes how history influences cultural identity filters out that doesn't correspond to the overall pattern determines which events are significant enough to be recorded as history can often show bias of historian shows whether its a primary or secondary source Theories of truth Correspondence a proven or verified principle or statement; fact informal fallacies
based on unpredictable people being predictable
economics is very theoretical (despite being based on observation) and may result in abstart models
considered less reliable than natural sciences Real life situation 3 - i.e. the shift from geocentrism to heliocentrism -the ptolemaic idea of cosmology first formed Around 150 AD,, when Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) elaborated Aristotle's ideas, and formed the idea of geocentrism -many of his explanations didn't add up, and thus Nicolaus Copernicus pushed forward a heliocentric model of the universe in 1514
-the heliocentric model was later confirmed by Galileo Galilei and his telescope observation Information Generalizations Theory Explanations and predictions Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 5 Other real life situations Bibliography http://www.thebigview.com/spacetime/universe.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_revisionism Limitations THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION ! ANY QUESTIONS? Thomas Kuhn, philosopher of science coined the term paradigm shift Knowledge issue To what extent can knowledge
be interpreted as a certainty when the applicable methods of justification are used in different areas of knowledge? Usually scientists would work within a paradigm of normal science, until new discoveries were made and the boundaries of normal science would "shift". Knowledge claim OTHER EXAMPLES Aristotle
Newton Those who shift paradigms strengths Cannot claim to be absolute, apart from in term of historical facts
Memory is fallible
Evidence is ambiguous
Prejudice is common
Historian's ideological aims Always approached from multiple perspectives
Approached by historians form different countries
Keeps on being rewritten (3 other forms of his rev)
Enriches understanding of human nature
Significance of events - facts don't speaks for themselves
PACT test LIMITATIONS Best method of researching information
No other way used by scientists
More observations made = more information = confirms what they know Reason Language Perception Emotion Emotion: respond emotionally in accordance to our beliefs being or challenged free will
experimentation and prediction
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
modern methods Real life situation 2b Danish (neuro) marketing expert Martin Lindstrom Author of buyology Uses scientific methods to determine demands, because consumers words and actions are often false balkans 1914 ? +Faith
+Creativity The way we perceive the world with our 5 senses A fool sees not the same tree as a wise man sees - William Blake •Problems of sensory observation/perception: our senses can be deceived, making our observations inaccurate and misleading.
•Problem of inductive logic; unreliability of generalizations
•The unreliability of empirical information (knowledge obtained through our senses)
•Depends on what scientists want to observe
•No certainty therefore needs a good conclusion shaped by culture (general responses) Reason: unbiased and verifiable information Sense perception: notice selectively Language: statistics, graphs... - Go and check! - Think! Does this fit with what I already know? - Does it work? Coherence Pragmatic -gives us ideas of how people might react to situations
-helps the government run the country
-helps financial institutions and businesses make decisions in the long run Our solar system
is heliocentric. IN NATURAL SCIENCES Real life situation 2b Danish (neuro) marketing expert Martin Lindstrom Author of buyology Uses scientific method to determine demand and circumvent the Cassandra paradox.
Neuroscientists formed a new way of knowing in the area of human sciences, namely using scientific method. Can we find an absolute truth in certain aspects of natural sciences? The certainty with which we know something may rely heavily on the area of knowledge it falls under. people don't always act rationally observation of people making formulas and graphs out of observations communication between people and economists and vice versa
graphs, diagrams and written work EVOLUTION VS. INTELLIGENT DESIGN paradigm shift in a movie about a paradigm shift.. Real life situation 2 John Forbes Nash vs. Adam Smith developed the game theory, which challenged Adam's Smith's perception of each to his own
Nobel prize winner
"A Beautiful Mind" Is there ever absolute truth to be found in history? . History
The cubist theory Cannot verify nor falsify a hypothesis
of a scientific theory Problems in scientific method Observation
A BEAUTIFUL MIND Other real life situations To what extent can knowledge be interpreted as a certainty when the applicable methods of justification are used in different areas of knowledge?