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The United States as an external cause of confederation.

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George Fares

on 28 April 2014

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Transcript of The United States as an external cause of confederation.

The American Civil War
- In the 1860's the American Civil War convinced many British North Americans that they needed a union among themselves for protection against their southern neighbor.
- During the civil war eleven southern states decided to separate from the United States. One issue was the States' right whether or not to keep the legal practice of slavery.
- The Southern States depended on slavery for their economy, while the southern states did not.
- In 1861 the Southern States formed a union and became the
. Then the northern states were called the
they declared war to stop the south from separating.
- The Civil War made British North Americans fell that
they needed more security, the sense of threat
from the United States led directly into
British Neutrality
- A large part of Britain's economy was based on the textile industry which produced cloth.
- British investors built small fast ships called blockade runners, to smuggle goods through the union blockade.
- British people benefited economically from southern slavery.
- Some American politicians suggested that they should strike Britain by invading British North America.
- Tension escalated in 1861 when a union ship
arrested two confederate diplomats on their way to Britain.
- Britain demanded an apology and return of the diplomats.
- America gave them back but did not apologize.
The Invasion of St. Albans
- Tensions between the U.S and British North America reached a crisis in 1864, when confederate soldiers used British North America as a base for attacks against the North.
- For example, in October, twenty southerners used Montreal as their base for an attack on the border town of St. Albans, Vermont and then a huge raid took place, and after the raid they fled back to Canada. The Northern states were angry because the Canadian courts did not punish the invaders.
- In 1865, the U.S threatened to take action against the Province of Canada.
- Members of the U.S government suggested they should take over British North America.
- Colonists really considered confederation, because they thought that with confederation, they could do a better job of defending themselves from annexation as a group, rather than a colony alone.
The Fenian Threat
- The potential threat to British North America from the U.S did not end when Union forces finally won the civil war in 1865.
- Among the new threats were groups of civil war veterans known as the Fenians
- The groups goal was Irish independence from Britain, by
1865 the American Fenian branch included approximately
ten-thousand civil war veterans.
- In 1866, the Fenians tried to invade New Brunswick,
although the attempt was unsuccessful, the raid
reinforced British North America's sense
of danger from the Americans.
The United States as an external cause of confederation.
By: George Fares, Abbey Layden, Katie Gallant, Joshua Tompa-Dale, and
David McEachern

- Around this time, many Americans began to feel they had a manifest destiny to control North America.
- This was a nineteenth-century belief that Americans had a God given right to the continent.
-The idea of the country's manifest destiny became increasingly popular among Americans during the nineteenth-century.
- Some Americans wanted to annex both Spanish territory (today Mexico) and the British Colonies (today Canada)
- Many British North Americans saw a different destiny for themselves, they wanted to form an independent confederation of provinces within the British empire.
Reciprocity ends
- Not all American causes of confederation came from security threats. When Britain repealed the Canada corn act in 1849, British North America lost a guaranteed customer.
- In response, the governor general established U.S as a new market for British North American goods. In 1854 the U.S signed the
with Britain.
- In the U.S not all companies shared the benefits of free trade with British North America, many companies wanted import taxes for Britain and its colonies' goods.
- The companies pressured the government to end the treaty and they did in 1866.
- The loss of the American market meant the colonies were once again looking for new trading partners. Some people thought confederation might be the solution.
- Many people decided it was time for British North America to rely upon itself.
Hope you learned!
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