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Carl Orff

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Elizabeth Heikkila

on 11 December 2013

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Transcript of Carl Orff

Carl Orff: Life and Works
Born on July 10, 1895
Munich, Germany
Home in Maillingerstrass
Early Years: "Wildwuchs"
School activities:
Ludwig Gymnasium
Chose to leave due to unstated difficulties at school
Wittelsbach Gymnasium
Favorite subjects: classical languages, literature, essay writing, and music
Cello class
School orchestra
Other Music Exposure:
First opera attended: "The Flying Dutchman"
Early Compositions
1910:
Began setting poetry to music
Ludwig Uhland, Nikolas Lenau, Friedrich Hölderlin, Heinrich Heine, Karl Stieler, and others
Three attempts at his Opus 1

1911
First song: "Frühlingsahnung"?
First song: "Eiland, ein Sang vom Chiemsee" (1911 or 1912)?

1912:
Approximately 60 songs sketched
Three choral pieces using Nietzsche's "Zarathustra"
Grandfather
Dr. Carl von Orff
Natural Scientist
Major General in the German army
Music-lover
Founded "Wild Gungl"
Connections with King Otto of Bavaria
Completed a biography of his grandson encompassing the years 1895-1915
Father
Heinrich Orff
Army officer
Passion for music
Mother
Paula Koestler
Skilled pianist
Strong musical influence
Sang duets with her son
Composed lyrics with Orff

Carl and Mia Orff, image located on www.orff.de
Parental Activities
Piano duets nightly
"Hausmusik" (String quartets/piano quintets)
Paula guided Orff's musical activities on piano and learning musical notation beginning at age five
Humanistic education
Orff called his young years his time of
"Wildwuchs" or "wild-growth"
Life in Maillingerstrausse:
Music heard daily
Barracks
Military spectacles
Nightly tattoos
High Mass

Influential Events:
"Kasperle auf der Wies'n"
Marionettentheater and der Blumenstrausse
Compositions from 1913-1914
Devotion to music grew rapidly
Lost interest in school
Finished studies, but allowed to leave to prepare for the entrance examination to the Academie der Tonkunst (Academy of Music in Munich)
Orff was accepted in 1912
He studied at the academy until 1914
Music resulting from Debussy's influence
Music based on Maeterlinck's poetry, "three sketches of wide diversity," (Thomas, 1988) (1913/1914)
"Gisei, das Opfer" Opus 20 (1913)
"Tanzende Faune" (1914)
"Trebhauslieder" (1914)

Turned to Richard Strauss for inspiration
"Carmina Burana"
Origin of Text
Premiere in Frankfurt, Germany on June 8, 1937

Godella Orff, "Orff: O Fortuna," Palmer (2008)
Later Years
Selected Bibliography
Carl Orff, "Carl Orff: A Portrait," Lutje, Bierman, & Willnauer (1995)
Carl Orff, "Carl Orff: A Portrait," Lutje, Bierman, & Willnauer (1995)
Carl Orff, "Carl Orff: A Portrait," Lutje, Biermann, & Willnauer (1995)
Carl Orff, "Orff: O Fortuna," Palmer (2008)
"Schulwerk"
The Nazi Years
National Socialist Party
Güntherschule tours
Nazi Party seizure
Güntherschule destroyed
All pictures were located online via Google November of 2013

1917:
World War I
The Eastern Front
Doctor's orders
Studied with Hermann Zilcher
Music director of the Junge Bühne Munchner Kammerspiele
New insights

1918
Nationaltheater in Mannheim and Hoftheater (or Landstheater?) in Darmstadt

1919
Incidental Music for "Leonce and Lena"
Left for Munich?

1920
Mailinger Street Apartments
Studied with Heinrich Kaminsky
The Güntherschule
Beginning
The New Dance Movement
Mary Wigman
Elemental music
Dorothee Günther
1923
Güntherschule opens in 1924
Carl Orff's involvement
Other interests included gardening, nature, botany, and writing
Church activities:
Solos in church choir
Accompanying opportunities
Curtis Sachs and his influence
Renaissance and Baroque music
New inspirations
Reconstructing Monteverdi operas
"Orpheus" (1923/1924)
"Tanz der Spröden" (1925)
"Klage der Ariadne" (1925)
"Carl Orff - Music for 1936 Olympics," Youtube, accessed 11/7/13
Munich, Germany after a bombing raid, image located on Google Images
White Rose Resistance
Kurt Huber
Interrogations
"Die Bernauerin" (1946)
1948
Bayerischen Rundfunk (Bavarian Radio)
Annemarie Schambeck
Radio broadcasts
Foreign introductions
Translations
Orff Institute in Salzburg, Austria founded in 1961
Puppet Theater
"Der Mond" (1936-1938)
"Die Kluge" (1941-1942)
"Carl Orff: A Portrait," Lutje, Bierman, & Willnauer (1995)
"Orff: O Fortuna," Palmer (2008)
Liselotte Orff, "Orff: O Fortuna," Palmer (2008)
Orff Institute, image located at www.orff.de
Wittelsbach Gymnasium, image located on www.orff.de
A Punch and Judy Show scene, image located on Google Images
Güntherschule, image located at www.orff.de
Selected Bibliography
Carl Orff Foundation. (2011). "Carl Orff." Retrieved from www.orff.de.
Frazee, J. & Kreuter, K. (1987). "Discovering Orff: A curriculum for music teachers". New York: NY: Schott Music Corps.
Helm, E. (1955). Carl Orff. "The Music Quarterly," 41(3), 285-304.
Lutje, W., Biermann, P.,& Willnauer, F. (1995). "The man who composed Carmina Burana: Memories of Carl Orff on the 100th anniversary of his birth [Motion Picture]. United States: BMG Classics.
Orff, C. (1976). "The Schulwerk" (Vols. 1-8) (M. Murray, Trans.). New York, NY: Schott Music Corps.
Palmer, T. (2008). "Orff: O Fortuna" [Motion Picture]. England: Isolde.
Sadie, S. & Tyrrell, J. (eds.). "The New Grove dictionary of music and musicians". (2nd ed., Vol. 18, pp. 558-563). New York, NY: Grove.
Thomas, W. (1988). "Carl Orff" (V. Maschat, Trans.). London, England: Schott & Co. Ltd.
1936 Olympic Games
New opportunity
Significant event in the development of "Schulwerk"
Emerging Musical Style
Not an opera composer
Material sources
Music described as, ". . . extraordinarily direct, elemental, and primitive," (Helm, p. 287, 1955)
Opposite of Romanticm, neo-romanticism, and Impressionist
Music, reduced to most simple elements
Primary factor
Ostinati
No use of counter rhythms
Variation
Return to ancient sources
1925-1935
A few select compositions
An arrangement of William Byrd's "Entrata" (1928)
"Cantus-Firmus-Sätze" (1929)
Conductor of the Bach Society in Munich
Much of Orff's music composed before 1935 was either withdrawn or destroyed by Orff himself
Academie der Tonkunst, image located on www.orff.de
1936 Olympic Games, image located on Google Images
The Orff Approach
Improvisation
Incantations
Ostinati
More advanced activities
The first publication
Willy Strecker
"Orff-Schulwerk - Elementare Musikübung" (1931-1934)
Concerns
Leo Kestenberg and "Schulwerk"
1936
Orff began distancing himself from the Güntherschule
He wished to pursue composing

The Güntherschule's Demise
Traveling
Professor of Composition at the Hochshule fur Musik in Munich
Returned to Ammersee
Honorary doctorate degrees
"Dokumentation" (1972-1981)
Carl Orff, image located on www.orff.de
Heinrich Orff and Paula Koestler, image located on www.orff.de
Carl Orff, image located on www.orff.de
Orff xylophone, image located on Google images
1936 Olympic Games, image located at www.orff.de
Image located on Google Images
Image located at www.orff.de
Image located on Google Images
Image located on Goggle Images
Carl Orff, image located at www.orff.de
The Flying Dutchman, image located on Google images
Elementare Musik (Elemental Music)
Elemenal music may be defined as, ". . . an improvised music shorn of centuries of convention; a music that was magical and spiritual and pure, played on the instrumentsof primitive peoples and using movement as a fundamental component," (Frazee & Kreuter, p. 9, 1987)
Active participation
In range of everyone to learn and experience music
The Orff Instrumentarium
Curt Sachs
Oskar Lang and the Swedish sisters
Tuning problems
Recorders as an alternative
The "Kaffir piano"
Karl Maendler
"Kaffir piano" image located on Googe Images
Full transcript