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How organisations use ict

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Jaime Madridejos

on 13 April 2016

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Transcript of How organisations use ict

2.1 Control systems
2.2 Working patterns
We are going to explore the changes ICT has caused on working pattern.
2.3 Advertising
This is used by organization and companies to advertise (you guessed it) products and services. This can be through posters, flyers, video games, etc.
2.6 Time management
To achieve success we need to know how to manage our time (lots of people waste a lot of time). There are certain skill you can learn to increase efficiency, this is called time management.
2.7 Data management
A database is a collection of related data. It basically is a collection of records and fields each with pieces of information
2.4 Teaching and learning
The educational industry makes use of educational technology.
How organisations use ICT
What can be defined as a control system?
Air conditioning systems, refrigeration, central-heating systems, car manufacture, medical application. These are all examples of control systems, but what do they have in common that makes them what they are?
A control systems is one that controls certain physical conditions (like temperature, humidity, moisture, etc.) via microprocessors or computers. They can either keep conditions constant during a period of time or vary them to match preset values.
2.5 Publishing
What you will learn about in this (amazing) presentation:
Controls systems
Working practices
Teaching and learning
Time management
Data management
payroll applications
Technical and customer support
art and design work
How do they work?
Closed loop system:
Open loop system:
Different applications of control systems:
Air conditioning units:
Central-heating systems:
Car manufacture:
Medical applications:
Process control
2.8 Payroll applications
2.9 Technical and customer support
2.10 Art and design work
An open-loop system, also called a non-feedback controller, is a type of controller that computes its input into a system using only the current state and its model of the system.

A feature of open-loop system that makes it different to a close loop is that it does not check, using feedback, that the output has achieved the goal of the input. This means that it does not check if the output is doing what the computer asked it to do. So an open-loop system is one that is unable to correct errors (if they were to happen).

Control systems are used to measure external conditions and act upon them. Firstly, sensors record information, like temperature, and then send them to the computer. A modem changes the recording to digital as sensors use analogue and computers can only read in digital. Then the computer acts upon it sending an output. This reaction time depends on the type of system, if it is either closed or open loop.
A closed loop system is one where there is feed back from the output to check it has done what it should have done.

Let's use the example of a washing machine. In a washing machine there are sensors like a thermometer to measure the temperature of the water. After recording this it sends it to the microprocessor in the washing machine has a preset value of what the temperature should be. Lets say it should have a warm 30 degrees, and the thermometer measures 26 degrees. The microprocessor then start heating up the water until the sensor registers 30 degrees and it tells it to stop heating the water.
How an air conditioning unit works: It is made up of a closed loop of cooper tubes used to move around a chemical. This chemical changes from liquid to gas so that as it evaporates it takes heat from the building. The gas is then taken to a compressor to repeat the cycle.. Then a fan blows air through metal fins that have been cooled through the losing of heat of the building.
Different air conditioning units have different sensors. For example some have to control the gas if the chemical (the refrigerant) and the pressure of the valves it flows through. Aside from this they also have temperature sensors in the room so they can change the fans speed or turn it on and off. This depend on the preset value. If higher then it turns it on or makes the fan faster , if lower then it turns it off or makes the fan slower.
The refrigeration works in the same way a air conditioning unit. It has a condensing unit in the rear and an evaporating unit inside. Main sensors used are: temperature sensors, pressure sensor and a number pad.
The microprocessor compares the data from the sensors (after having it pass through a modem) with the preset value inserted with the number pad by the user. So if the temperature is higher than the preset value then the compressor is turned on, however if it is too low then it is switched off. There are also other outputs like warning buzzers or LED's in case the door is left open or to show the temperature, respectively.
Hardware requirement:
Freezers work in the same way but they have lower temperatures.
Most boilers used today use water and a boiler as a way to get heat. The boiler heats the water (doesn't boil it) and it then flows towards a hot-water cylinder and a pump causes the water to flow out to radiators in the rooms you want to warm up.
A microprocessor-controlled central-heating systems, users press a touch screen and insert the temperature they want. The temperature sensors on the walls then take readings. The microprocessor uses a modem to be able to read the data and then turns on the boiler if the reading is too low or it turns it off if it s too high. The microprocessor also activates actuators to open gas valves or to witch the pump on.
The microprocessor also has the capability to have set times to witch on and off.
Software requirement:
Spreadsheet software (to save the recordings, may even also need database software)
Programming software
Computer controlled robots are now widely used in the manufacturing industries, especially in car manufacture (they are generally just robot arms, not an entire robot. Most robots are controlled via actuators that use electric motors (direct current motors (DC) that rapidly spin in the direction that the electrical current is applied). However, a more popular type of motor used to control robots is the stepper motor, that unlike DC motors, they move in really small steps so that it is easier to control using a computer.
Robot arms generally consist of seven metallic sections with six metallic joints controlled each of them by a different stepper motor.
End effectors
An end effector are the piece at the end of the robot arm. There can be different types of end effectors to be able to do various jobs.
They can have end effectors to do jobs like:
Cameras to inspect work
Welding guns to weld parts of the car together
Grippers to pick up parts of the car (they have pressure sensors to measure how hard they are gripping)
Vacuum cups to pick up parts without grabbing from the sides or bottom for example windscreens
Drills to make holes in the car body.
Screw drivers/spanners/rivets to place and tighten screws, nuts, bolts and rivets
Spray gun to paint cars
Sanders/polishers/finishers to produce a shiny product.
Programming robot arms
A robot arms can have any of the end effectors mentioned on the last slide. You can change the end effector any time you want but you would also have to change the programming.
Industrial robots are made to perform the same job non-stop. It always moves the same distance and applies the same pressure. A programmer has to guide the robot through each step he has two ways to do this. This can be done by either physically holding the arm (with the aid of sensors) or by having a remote control. The robot then stores the movement it makes in its memory and so it is then able to carry the same task over and over again.
Humans vs Robots
Why use a robot over a human:
A robot arm is more accurate
The running cots are lower compared to a worker
Robots arms do not get tired so the produce at a consistent standard.
They can constantly work without rest.
Computer control is used in medical application (with human intervention) in intensive care and surgery mostly.
Intensive care
Patients in intensive care are monitored through the use of sensors that feedback things like blood pressure, pulse rate and body temperature.
The sensors take readings and then sends it to the computer (via modem) that then compares it to the preset range. If the value is in between the range then it doesn't act. However if it is off the range then it sounds an alarm. This is not the same as the other control systems we know as it requires human intervention. As they use sensors and computers there readings are more accurate and can monitor various patients at the same time and so nurses can concentrate on other task.
This usually involve a robot with small end effectors as cameras or scalpels. When operating the surgeon wears goggles to be able to see the camera screen and they can control the robot through a console and the robot reacts in the same their movements do. The result is that work is more accurate and the surgeon is in full control. This speeds up the process of surgery as ptients recover quicker and so they occupy less hospital rooms.
This is the use of computers or microprocessors to control a process. This is generally used in oil refining, chemical processing, car manufacture and temperature. These process widely uses a modem to convert from analogue-to-digital and vice versa.
There are three types of process control: Batch, continuous and discrete.
Batch process control
This method is used when a certain type of raw materials are combined for a certain period of time.

We can see this in the example of the manufacture of food products. Every ingredient is measured and then added to a large vessel and then mixed together for a certain period of time. They are then cooked. A computer is responsible for measuring the amount of each ingredient that needs to be added, how much time for each step and the temperature.

This whole process is manly used to produce a low quantity of a product per year.
Continuous process control
This is about a process that seems unending like maintaining the temperature in a temperature controlled system. Other examples include the refining process of petroleum.

This method is used in large quantities of product per year.
Discrete process control
Specific items produced
Similar to stop and start process
An example is a robot fitting wheels on cars. It places the wheels and then it waits for the next car to fit the wheels on that car. In between the cars the robot stops therefore making it discrete
This is the same as working at home.
ICT devices and systems have enabled for people to work at home instead of working in an office.
All or most of the work done by 'teleworkers' uses modern technology.
More people 'telework' every year.
What a teleworker need
The ability to connect with coworkers from a distance means that they spend less periods of time at the office.
To connect to the office they use a
connection or a
virtual private network (VPN)
People tend to use
mobile phones
and a
with wireless network capability or a
personal digital assistant (PDA)
Requirement for working at home:
A PC with internet access
Access to e-mail
A fax machine
A landline phone
A mobile phone
A printer/photocopier (laser or ink jet)
(Possibly a scanner)
Who is most entitled to teleworking?
A manager would most likely let these type of jobs teleworking:

professional service like tax advice, legal advice and financial advice
Book editing
Proofreading documents and/or books
Translation of documents
Technical and customer support
Telesales and marketing
(Each job will need access to word-processing and web-browsing software. Some may even need spreadsheet and database software like tax advisers.)
Employe requirement for teleworking
Aside from knowing the jobs suited for teleworking, a manager must know if an employee is suited for home working or for office working.
To become a teleworker and employee must:
Have good time management
Be motivated
Have good communication skills.
Good discipline
(Also, managers must decide how frequently does the teleworker need to contact the office and the method of communication used.)
Other things managers need to do
The provision of support and the technology involved
Training sessions
staff meetings
company outings
(this way the feel in contact with the rest of the group)
Remote working
Teleworking or home working contributes to a large part of remote working but there is another type. This is when an employee works away from the main office, for example, traveling salesmen, employees working in a temporary office, etc.
Technologies they use to communicate with the main office:
PDAs or other hand held computers with wireless networking capability
Mobile telephones
laptops with wireless capability
In what cases and who would those devices be used?
Engineers on a site can use their
to send their reports via e-mail. They are able to see technical manuals relevant to the work and can make use of the built-in database and spreadsheet software.
Doctors can use
(connected to a high security VPN) to access patient records, X-rays and much more while they are out and visiting patients.
Travelling salesmen that are away form the main office can take advantage of hot-spots with their
laptops or PDAs
. They can also call other salesmen and they can connect to the main office with the Wi-Fi supplied by the hotel they are staying at.
For all of these example
remote access service (RAS)
is available. These means they can access their own PC while being away.
Office based working
Even if the number of teleworkers is increasing some managers still keep their offices. Some do this because they think it is the best for the company or due to the workers request.
However, some companies are rather skeptical about the whole teleworking and home working matter. They think that employees would spend their day and do non-productive activities.
On the other hand, an employee might feel isolated as they no loner have their colleagues to chat with. Also, some workers feel that this way they are more prone to being fired when the company is making redundancies
A video conference is the same as a conventional conference but this is one is through the internet.
Essential components:
A standard PC with moues and keyboard
A monitor
A network connection(has to be have high connection speed so that the transmission is high quality)
A web cam
A microphone
videoconferencing software
Two types of videoconferencing exist: Each person involved has personal access to the conference; or instead of individuals, groups of people.
The members involved in the videoconferencing would need to log on to the system or Internet and with the software running they should hear and see the rest of the members involved.

To communicate they speak into the microphone and look into the web cam (tends to be on top of the monitor).

Conference member can examine document with existing software, discuss changes in the files and make themselves changes to it.
Where and who uses videoconferencing?
This is used in a whole variety of cases.
For example:
Schools tend to use this to communicate to other schools (especially in remote location)
Nurses and doctors can use it to discuss cases when they are a long way from each other.
Business prefer to use this instead of face-to-face conferences. Also for teleworkers to report back to the office.
Has videoconferencing always been popular?
At first, the quality of the transmission was poor making it less used method of communication.
Later on, this was changed to a good connection was cheaper through broadband.
Lately, hardware has become more accessible and cheaper making the transmission better.
Phone conferencing
This subtopic talks about the linking together of several people through a phone line so they can have a collective call. This is possible through the use of mobile phones, landline telephones or over voice over the Internet protocol (VOIP).
I order for this to happen, there must be at least three participants involved, otherwise it would just be a normal conversation. Each person involved would have to enter a PIN number after calling the conference phone number. This is their way of entering the call that is already started. Although, before they have the conference, they need to have a set date and time for this to happen as it need to be arranged with the phone company.
Two PINs are distributed. One for the organiser and another one for the participants. The organiser would send the PIN to the other members. To start the conversation the organiser dials the phone number and enters the PIN, then each participant do the same thing with the other PIN and there you go.
Instant messaging
This is the exchange of messages between two or more people through instant messaging software
Interactive, you can immediately reply to people logged into the same system.
Requires user name and password and (usually e-mail)
Firstly, you need to add people to be able to contact them.
You select a person and you can start speaking to them, then you wait for them to reply.
Faster than e-mail. (E-mail is usually stored on a mail server for seconds or minutes).
Although, very basic and you don't have the same options available as in e-mail
Short for facsimile transmission.
Connects to phone line.
Scans file and then send via phone lines to other fax that then prints it.
Slow process due to the use of modem.
Used when an original copy is needed, although the copy can end up having lower quality.
Companies sometimes prefer printers with both printing and scanning services already built in.
It is still widely use, although e-mail and other services are getting the upper hand.
Legal documents send by e-mail are sometime not accepted whereas by fax they are.
E.g. Fax is used by newspaper companies to send copies of their newspaper to publishers.
Electronic faxing
Use internet for faxing.
The user prints the document in fax software format that sends the document via broadband.
The receiver gets the document either on the fax machine
Advantages of electronic faxing over manual faxing:
Saves time of traveling to the fax machine and back
Lower equipment cost
Running costs are lower, no dedicated fax line needed.
Confidential faxes are secure. In manual fax the copy could be stolen
You don't have to be in the office, you can directly download them.
Types of advertising
Methods of advertising
Product Advertising
This means advertising a specific product (like a specific model of a car, no the whole range).
It applies for every type of product.
Every ad is specifically created for the target audience.
Then you decide through what media to advertise, the newspaper or on the internet.
For example a soda would be advertised on children's television channels as sodas are aimed towards to a younger audience.
Business advertising
For a company to become know they need to advertise their company
This advertises the company name, not juts one product.
The type of audience they want to attract also influences where they advertise. If they are aiming for the wealthy then they would use newspaper and magazines usually read by the wealthier people.
Service advertisement
This is for services rather than goods.
Examples: insurance, government, tourism, banking, education, social services, etc.
This is similar to advertising businesses.
These companies differ in that some that look to increase profit (profit-making companies like insurance companies) and so spend a lot on advertising, whereas others (non profit-making companies, like governments) spend sufficient money to be known.
Profit making tend to use a variety of advertising media whereas non profit making companies would use the television.
Has recently come to light
Cheap form of advertising compared to other methods
Allows to advertise nationally and internationally
There are two ways of doing this.
By either owing your own website or by advertising on other people's website
Your own website
Companies hire web designers to deign the web to their own specification with a web authoring package.
They will use things like this to create the website:
Scanners to input hard copies, e.g. photos.
Microphones for voiceovers, e.g. for a video
Speakers to check the sound quality
Video cameras to upload videos
Digital camera to upload photos.
Factors that affect this decision of choosing your own website:
Designers charge a large fee.
It would need a lot of features (videos, sound files, etc.)
Hyperlinks would need to be used to other pages.
The company and goods/services they provide must be clearly shown as must the contact details.
The company need to know hot to get to the top or in the top ten matches on a search engine
Advertising on other people's websites
Advertising on other websites is a cheaper alternative
Many website allow other companies tom place adverts (like a small banner at the top on their website)
They can also use pop-ups to grab the instant attention of the reader, hover it could make a consumer angry as they don't want to be disturbed and so you lose a possible costumer
Also, some computers now use a software that blocks pop-ups so it would be a waste of money
Another form is "pop-unders", a small window that appears under the one you are currently using. The positive about this is that it is unaffected by blocking software and it is less likely for customers to get mad. Plus, it could contain links to their main website.
Getting into an online directory
Organisations that are included in an online directory can advertise themselves by getting their name in one.
(An online directory is for business and service providers)
Their name is placed both in alphabetical order and in their correct business/service section.
To use this method of advertisement, they rely that the consumers have all the means to be able to access the online directories.
Multimedia presentations
These are already present in many websites and are placed in strategic locations.
It makes use of features of multimedia (sound/music, video, animation, text, images, hyperlinks and many others like special text effects).
Retail outlets use these. (Can be large screens centrally positioned or small screens on shelves).
It is always on and advertising you goods/services or company.
User can't easily turn off the screen.
They are quicker and faster to update compared to other methods.
This is a major revenue maker for companies and more and more organisations are using this method.
Usually single-page leaflet.
Can advertise events, services, restaurants, etc.
useful for advertising to local community and so making it have a limited impact.
Produced by individuals or companies themselves using their own printer and PCs. (If in need of high output a publisher would be generally used for all the copies).
Doesn't take very long to produce using basic desktop-publisher software which include clipart.. (This allows: accurate image and text placing, patterns and also allows text-enhancing facilities)
Large pieces of paper (A1) to advertise products or services.
Printed by professional printers.
Created with either word-processing, desktop publishing or presentation software. (Presentation software is normally used due to more page size option)
Images and text is placed according to the target audience.
Can be used to advertise local events or larger organisations can use it to adevrtise products or services.
This includes the use of computers, multimedia materials, networks and communications systems.
This topic includes
CAI- computer-aided instruction
CAL- computer-aided learning
CBL- computer-based learning
CBT- computer-based training
CMC- computer-mediated communications
CAA- computer-aided assessment
(We are joining CAL and CBL together as wells as CAI with CBT)
CAI - computer-aided instruction
This is when, for example, in a school a teacher is replaced with a computer that now becomes the new teacher of the students.
How does it work?
At first, it gives students a pre-test to see at what level they currently are.(This is straightforward)
Then, the computer aids them through different sections which the students complete at their pace.
Things that are good about this:
It is easy to use
Has fun games and quizzes
Tracks the students progress and test results.
Things that are not very good:
No teacher so there is more distance between students and teacher.
CAL (computer-aided learning)
In this type of educational technology the computer works alongside the teacher to help improves the students knowledge.

Teacher is in full control
It integrates with the textbooks, worksheets and other media.
Uses the internet that allows students to investigate and perform research.
This may be seen as CAI (the use of internet), however it is not as the teacher is still responsible for the work going on.
Devices used:
DVD players
Interactive whiteboards
Multimedia projector
Overhead projectors
CMC (Computer-mediated communications)
Consists of e-mail, instant messaging and chat rooms.
E-mails is used to send documents between teachers and students.
CAA (Computer-aided assessment)
Used to determine students progress

Two main types: 1-summative 2-formative
1- Summative
This is basically the computers ask questions to a student and then records the answer given by the student.
It then simply gives a total mark which is forwarded to the teacher.
It does not suggest improvement for the student.
2- Formative
This method uses the responses given by the students to determine the progress.
I then gives the student advice on what they need to improve.
Record keeping
Spreadsheet software is usually used to store exam marks, predict students grades, set targets and keep an attendance record for each student.

It can also plot graphs of the scores to show progress and other things. It can also create statistics of things like the attendance which can be used to, for example, create a graph.

It can also keep the scores of various classes.
This uses batch processing. Which means files are stored on magnetic tapes.
Uses two data files: master file and transaction file.
Master file holds the data about the workers: employee number, name, contact details, rate of pay, taxes, insurance and more.
The employee number is set as primary key and placed in that order.
There is less data on the transaction file (this contains temporary data that can change each week or month. Also, contains data of workers who have been fired or that have already changed.
It can contain details like hours worked and overtime. It must also contain the employee number.
Each week or month the transaction file is processed with the use of the transaction file. (Each in order of employee number).
The computer calculates the pay of each worker with the use of the hours worked in the transaction file and the rate of pay in the master file.
Payslips are then printed as well as error reports and reports with statistics.
The records of the old master file are read and updated with the calculations and deletions, additions or amendments (we saw this in 2.7).
These goes on a new tape.
Each week or month the new master file becomes the old one and collaborates with a transaction file to produce payslips.
Master and transaction files
Contains info from the new master file and the transaction file.
The master file provides info like employee, number rate of pay, etc. The transaction file contains the employee number, hours worked, etc. To create the payslip the information from each file is linked. The pay would be calculated using the employee number from both, the rate of pay and the hours worked form the master file and the transaction file, respectively.
Financial reports
Payroll software is used as a report generator
It contains:
Info of all the employees in a company.
Info on the salary of each worker.
The national insurance of all employees.
The income tax each worker has to pay
The money paid to each bank where the workers have accounts.
All earning and deductions.
Exception reports:
This are reports that break validation rules. This can be from earning more than usual or two workers with the same insurance code.
Many companies offer customer support and use call centers.
A computer telephony integration (CTI) is used to integrate the entire system (like connecting computer to telephone lines).
Phone call are processes with IVR ( Interactive Voice Response).
As mentioned before, it integrates the
It sends commands form the operators computers to the server.
It has various functions like:
Directing calls to either the appropriate operator or another solution
It need to know to who direct the call (someone with expertise on the topic.
It has features like:
Being able to combine data and voice output in the system
Display caller's number, number dialed, etc.
Multiple dialing techniques: fast dial, preview, predictive dial.
IT has two forms:
First-party control (operator has direct control between their computer and phone set)
Third party control (The operators phone communicates directly to the server so the server controls all the phones.
Call centers
Examples of company using call centers:
Utility companies: Here the operators give customer support. They can help customers that want to pay bills or want to change details about their bank accounts. Also, can deal with reports on customer satisfaction
Mail order catalogue: Operators help customers in the form if payments and account information. They can also accept orders or news about already placed orders.
Computer hardware/software suppliers: Operators with technical expertise offer technical support. Helps customers who have a problem on their computer.
Call centers are usually placed abroad and these can be good and bad.
The good:
Workers are paid less so company saves on costs.
Renting the call centers is cheaper for the company.
The timezones do not intervene with business.
The bad:
The workers may have scripts they have to follow so they are less flexible
The workers may speak with different vocabulary and accents and so can be hard to understnd,
ICT uses a wide range of art and design, we have seen so in the whole chapter (flyers, poster, etc.). We are now going to see at the software and the hardware they use.
Most companies have large storage capacities and have appropriate graphics software installed (image-editing software).
These software use features like:
crop an image
rotate an image
flip an image
fill parts of the image with colour
look at 3D vies
Remove scratches from photos
draw lines and shapes
add text in a variety of fonts
The software also has access to clip art and photo galleries. It uses a mosue or trackball to make changes.
This topic is about the influence of ICT on publishing.
Firstly the editorial office collects the stories form the journalists together (via e-mail).
The editorial office then edit the stories and create a layout for the newspaper.
(It then needs proofreading to remove mistakes.)
This is similar to magazine production.
Type setting
This refers to the layout of the typed page.
It has to be easy to read. (You need correct font and size).
You have other features like:
kerning: the space between letters in a word (E.g. a and v close together whereas r and y with more separation)
Leading: space between lines on the page (to give correct appearance.
Length of each line: number of characters per line.
Long texts might need editing. Title and story font size would need to be changed.
Before they had to manually be edited.
Even though desktop publishing has all the features you need there is still a lot of separation between a pro and an amateur.
Transmitting completed pages
After everything is in check with the layout of the newspaper the editor has to send it to the publisher and they have two ways of doing so:
A page is printed and the image is burned onto a light-sensitive film. The film of the page is then faxed to the published.
Publishers have publishing plants and when they receive the digital format or the fax file they send it via satellite to the printing plants for the newspaper to get printed.
Computerised plate making
Images form the negatives are transferred to printing plates (like how photographs are developed).
Ultraviolet light is allowed to pass through the film negatives to expose the printing plates.
This makes a chemical reaction takes place that creates a light-sensitive coating to appear on aluminum to develop the image.
The aluminum is then fixed to the actual printing press.
It has three rollers or cylinders.
The plates are flexible to be able to fit around the rollers.
Most common method of printing is web offset lithography.
(Fun fact: it does not actually touch the paper being printed).
The roller with the plate has ink and it rotates against a blanket cylinder.
The blanket cylinder then forms an image from the plate.
The blanket cylinder then presses against the paper creating the image on the paper.
The other cylinder is there to support the paper.
The printed pages are then cut according to the size of the newspaper and is stacked.
Approaches to good time management
Organisations feel they need to keep up to date with time management to make it profitable.
To do this the company can bring outside experts to help in various time inefficient companies
Features of time management:
Long and short term targets- whilst looking at the goal of the final product you have to look also in steps by steps.
Prioritising- to place an importance on each of the steps and then use your time depending on the importance of each step
Planning- planning ahead can save time in the production of the product
Decision making- Workers need to learn to make the correct decisions and how those decisions affect their time.
Use of ICT- Benefit from the software and communication capabilities of technology
Uses of software packages in time management
Software companies are competing to gain customers for their time management software. There are also pre-built in packages on computers that van help with time management.
Organising meeting times
Organiser packs come with most computers and contains: e-mail, contacts, tasks and a calendar function.
The calendar function enables to keep records of future appointments and meeting times.
Also a public calendar can be made for all the workers to access via a network (this is separate form the private calendar.
The public calendar can avoid appointment clashes and can make it easier to create meetings
Arranging workload
Some software products act as stopwatches. It reminds users how long each task is taking.
This helps see how much time is being allocated on each task.
It also helps managers take decisions like how much resources to allocate to each task depending on hoe long they take to complete.
This system helps with planning at it can also predict how long each task will take.
Research and development projects
Business software can help support these projects with calendars, timescales, Gantt charts, and so on.
Gantt charts help to plan tasks that can help the process.
There are two types of activity: sequential and parallel.
Sequential are activities that cannot happen until another has happened. (E.g. to place the engine of the car you need to first make the body of the car)
Parallel activities are ones that can happen at the same time as another (e.g. making the seat of the car while the car is stil being made.
In a Gantt chart, the parallel activities are made to finish at the same time (not start) and the sequential start as soon as the last one is finished.
Construction project management
This method is used on a variety of projects.
It uses a critical path to create the most optimum tome spent on individual tasks.
It helps to see how time is being spent and allows to concentrate on future plans.
This stands for database management system.
It is what manages the database system.
It manages:
the structure of individual data files.
Relationships between data items and data files.
How the data is interrogated.
Properties of the database (all processes needed to be done are done correctly).
Sequential files
In these type of files records are stored one after another usually in a magnetic tape. To read or write data from a tape a sequential file must be used.
Records can be arranged in two ways: Ordered sequential, uses a primary key. Unordered sequential, uses no particular order
In both of these ways the only way to access data is going through every record one after the other.
Disadvantages of sequential files:
You can only add file to the end
A file can only be replaced by a file of the same size.
A file can only be updated if the new file is the same size.
Adding files to the end is easy although you can make amendations or delete records with the use of master and transaction file.
If the file is unordered that is more difficult
It works in this way: In the master file you have an ordered sequential file with, for example, a customer ID and some information on each customer. Then, in the transaction file you have the customer ID to link both files. You then have a field with transaction that decides what to do with the info, D-delete, C-change, etc. Then the master file is updated depending on what the transaction file tells it to do. (If you delete then it is simply not added to the new master file.
Indexed sequential and random access files
Files are stored in order.
These files are stored in disks which enable direct access. Each file has a limitation on field length and as everything is in order and same size the access speed to files is faster as it knows where to jump to to read files.
Banks use sequential access for batch processing cheques.
Hierarchical Database Management systems
It is not very common to see this nowadays as they have one-way relationships problems.
They have a tree like structure. There are folders at the top and then folders beneath them and then bam, a tree.
Its main use in file organisation.
This enables fats access to data but can be worst when going down the levels to the lowest of the levels.
Network database management systems
Relational database systems
It is basically several tables that are linked in some way.
Every table has a primary that is shared and is present in the other tables they are related to.
To produce reports, the information is linked through the primary keys and then you can get the information you need from each and you have the most groundbreaking, game changing, jaw dropping and insuperable reports in the world.
Developed to overcome hierarchical type.
It is outdated although it is still used.
these are the systems that enable any user in the network to Access the database without affecting the speed of Access. they may Access it by LAN or WLAN
This enables people in either a LAN or WLAN to access the info.
These systems enable any user in the network to have access to use the database in any way the want without altering access speeds.
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