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Forest Ecosystem Project
Transcript of Forest Ecosystem Project
Biotic Factors: Animals/Consumers
Biotic Factors: Plants/Producers
The American Beech tree grows in the southern and eastern parts of the US. This is a tall and wide tree, and it has a smooth, gray bark. The leaves are bright green and about 3 inches long with a pointed tip. Animals such as deer, black bears, rabbits, and squirrels will eat the nuts that grow on this tree.
American Beech Tree
White Oak Tree
This tree can grow up to 100 feet tall and can be 3-4 feet in diameter. It can live for a long time and has a gray-whitish bark. Oak trees produce acorns, which are eaten by many animals such as deer. This tree can also spread to up to 80 feet!
This tree prefers colder climates and has a white bark with dark horizontal stripes. It can grow up to 70 or 80 feet high and doesn't live for very long, compared to the average life of most trees. Small heart-shaped leaves are found on their flexible branches. The tree develops flowers, which turn into winged seeds that glide away from the tree when they fall. Some animals, like rabbits, will eat the seeds and bark. Hummingbirds and squirrels will eat the sap from the tree.
Shagbark Hickory Tree
The Shagbark Hickory tree has an ashy grey-colored bark that peels into strips, which makes it look very shaggy. This tree grows very straight and up to 100 feet tall. The wood is very strong and tough and the branches can spread to about 25 feet from the trunk. The leaves grow in groups of 5 or 7 and can be very large. The tree also produces sweet nuts and small flowers.
This plant has dark green, oval, toothed, rounded leaves that grow on it. It produces flowers that are white or pink that grow in clusters. This plant makes black-blue colored fruit that is eaten by grouse and chipmunks. Deer enjoy eating the leaves and stems. The bark is grey and smooth and the plant can grow very large.
This plant can grow 2-3 feet tall and has many rough-textured leaves. Many sprouts come out of one central stem in the ground. They actually prefer to grow in shaded areas! Instead of seeds, ferns use spores to reproduce. Grizzly bears and elk will eat this plant as a food source. These plants mostly cover parts of the forest floor.
White Birch Tree
These trees can grow to enormous heights of up to 180 feet! The Bark on this tree is rough and scaly and can be a pale grey or brown. Pecan trees use the wind to pollinate and have some small flowers. As you would have guessed, this tree produces pecan nuts which are a tasty and important food source. The leaves grow in groups of 11-17 and have a pointed tip. They can be 5inches long and 3 inches wide.
This simple, rootless evergreen plant is found covering the forest floor and and the bottom of tree trunks. Fresh moss is a golden green, but turns darker green as it gets older. The "leaves" of the plant are parallel and are bended at the end. The moss is soft and looks very smooth.
Common Lime Tree
This tree is tall and stately, and can live for about 500 years! Thick side shoots (stems) grow along the base of the trunk. The leaves grow singly along a stem and are about 4-7 inches wide with a rounded heart-shape. The tree has flowers that attract insects, as well as small pea-sized fruit that hang on the tree. When young, the bark is a smooth grey. When older, the bark turns browner and forms many shallow perpendicular cracks.
Plants are the first energy source in ecosystems. They use photosynthesis to convert water, sunlight, CO2, and nutrients into sugar for there needs. Most of this process happens in plant leaves, where the sunlight is most abundant. Plants are producers, which are eaten by first-level and other level consumers in the food web.
The fur of this deer is grey in the winter and redish in the summer. I has bands of white fur around its nose, eyes and other places. Only males have antlers, which are shed in winter months. Most males a heavier than females. Deer are most active at night, and eat plants and nuts mostly at the time of dawn. Does (female deer) give birth to fawns, and the deer usually live for ten years. There fur provides camouflage, which hides them from predators.
American Black Bear
Coyotes can weigh from 14 to 45 pounds. They have a 12 to 16 inch-long tail, along with a long pointed nose and large ears. Coyotes can live almost anywhere in various ecosystems. They have families with usually 6 puppies and parents to watch over them. They can hunt in pairs, and eat mainly small mammals as well as fruit and insects. They have sharp senses and can easily upset the balance of a ecosystem if they immigrate into one.
European Red Squirrel
This bear can run 25 miles per hour and can be very heavy, over 550 pounds! They have a short tail and short claws, which are good for climbing trees. They are usually 5-6 feet long. They give birth to young in the winter, and the babies are raised by their mother. These bears live up to 25 years, and have thick layers of fur to protect them from cold temperatures. 3/4 of their diet is plants, with the other 1/4 as honey, carcasses, small animals, and insects.
This bird is the national symbol of the United States. It lives in the forests of the eastern US. It stand about two-and-a-half to three feet tall. It can have a wingspan of five to eight feet, and is one of the largest birds in America. It has a white head, black body, white tail, orange feet, and a yellow beak. The eagle looks"bald"in the sky because of its white head. They raise eaglets in huge nests usually built by water. These eagles can see up to eight times better and further than humans. They have spikes on their feet to help them hold fish in flight. Their curved beak helps them rip apart meat when they eat. This eagle is a professional predator and has amazing abilities.
This small animal weighs about 3 ounces. It has brown-redish fur with stripes that are found all over the body. They make a chattering noise when they are upset. They have small, concealed dens in which they sleep and live in. They do go into hibernation, although they may move around if the weather is warmer. Parents raise families of 2-5 babies, which are left on their own at 2 months old. These animals eat grains, nuts, berries, seeds, bugs, and bird eggs. They store food underground so they can have a constant supply of food.
This strange animal has thick fur, a flat body, a tail, and a large bill. Males have spurs on their ankles that carry venom for defense. It can b 26 to 39 inches long, and they have nostrils which they close when they go underwater. They live up to 15 years, and lay eggs which produce baby platypus that are raised by the female. They have webbed feet and a flat tail that help them swim well. They eat frogs, shrimp, fish, and tadpoles. They have burrows in the soft mud near riverbanks, which is where they live.
The european red squirrel lives in the forests of Europe. This rodent has strong teeth to open pinecones and seeds, They have sharp claws to climb trees. It has a bushy tail and red/brown fur. Parents usually have 3-4 babies at one time. The babies are deaf and blind at birth. The babies learn what foods to eat from their mothers, and the father doesn't help the mother raise the babies. They live 4-6 years and eat acorns, hazelnuts, chestnuts and beech flowers, fungi, berries and caterpillars. Their predators are birds of prey, wild cats, and pine martens. They keep safe in the trees.
This animal lives in the forests of Europe, Africa, Asia, and Japan. It looks like a short, fat squirrel and finds shelter in hollow trees and rock crevices. It has soft, silver fur, black eyes, short legs, and big, round ears. Its body is 5-8 inches long, plus the 4-6 inch tail. The dormouse is nocturnal, and has sensitive, powerful ears. They can live for five years, and hibernate in the winter. They eat apples, pears, plums, grapes, seeds, berries, nuts, insects, and sometimes birds eggs. Before hibernation, the dormouse eats lots of food and gains weight for its long hibernation ahead. Snakes, hawks, and owls eat them.
This weasel roams the Northeast Asian deciduous forest. It is one of the smallest carnivores in the world. It has sharp nails and a slender body. The fur is brown and white, and the weasels will mark a territory for themselves. The least weasel has short legs, black eyes, and a very good hearing. A mother raises 3-10 babies at a time, without the fathers help. They eat mice, rats, moles, small birds, bird's eggs, rabbits, and poultry. Their predators are hawks and owls. They can kill prey up to 5 times their size, and live for about 2 years in the wild.
Consumers cannot make their own food, so they obtain their energy from producers or other animals, or both. Consumers are classified by what they eat. Carnivores only eat meat, herbivores only eat plants, and omnivores eat both of them. Consumers are ranked in certain levels on a energy pyramid for what they eat and obtain energy from. Scavengers feed on dead animals for food, such as vultures who scan the ground for dead meat. There are many more animals, such as owls, that are not included here.
Abiotic factors are the non-living things in an ecosystem. But, they are necessary to support the life in a specific ecosystem. They include:
: needed for all living things to survive in a ecosystem-some ecosystem have more than others.
: needed for photosynthesis-keeps producers alive in an ecosystem.
: needed for most living things-produced by plants and used by other organisms for life.
: needed to determine what animals live in an ecosystem-animals can adapt to their ecosystem's temp.
: Allows plants to grow and obtain nutrients-provides homes for many animals and microscopic organisms.
1st level Consumers: deer/insects/rodents,etc.
2nd Level Consumers: bears/birds/weasels,etc.
Birds of prey/bears/coyotes
Bear/Birds of prey
Welcome to the deciduous forest ecosystem. Many animals thrive and interact with each other to form this ecosystem. These forests are found in the eastern US, Europe, parts of Russia, China, and Japan, as well as parts of Canada. The seasons are distinct, and the temperture can rise and fall drasticlly in winter and summer. There is a good amount of rainfall, and many of the plants and animals have adaptated to this ecosystem through natural selection. Some of the organisms here are not located in all of the regions of this forest, but in general, the organisms in this presentation live in the temperate deciduous forest in some region of it. Also note that there are many other animals and plants besides the ones shown here. They might include racoons, owls, and certain snakes, as well as sweet gum trees and hickleberry bushes.
Fungi are molds, yeasts, and mushrooms that break down and feed on organic matter. These decomposers are found in this ecosystem.
Bacteria can be in soil and plants breaks down dead matter, and sometimes can harm plants that are living. The bacteria are not visible to the naked eye.
Worms, beetles, flies, and maggots are examples of insects that break down and feed of of dead organic matter. Many of these bugs ive iside of dead logs and trees, where they break the plant down.
Decomposers recycle energy and nutrients in an ecosystem to keep it healthy.
Many plants and animals have adapted to this ecosystem. The trees and plants have learned to lean to the sun for more sunlight. Many animals use the trees to hide and escape danger. Many animals have camouflaged fur to blend in with their surroundings, like the white-tailed deer. Many animals have sharp senses to help them survive. This is all the work of natural selection.
Sometimes animals will immigrate and emigrate in and out of a ecosystem, especially if food is in low supply for a specific animal. If, for example, a bigger type of squirrel immigrates into this ecosystem in Europe, the european red squirrel may not be able to compete for food and space with ths animal. This could cause the population to decrease, and eventually, the european red squirrels to emigrate to another place. The emigration and immigration of animals often throws an ecosystem off balance. Also, the birth rate and death rate of a population of animals may rise and fall over time, which will change the ecosystem.