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CHAPTER 4: PROBLEM SOLVING IN OFFICE MANAGEMENT

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syikin seth

on 4 July 2015

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Transcript of CHAPTER 4: PROBLEM SOLVING IN OFFICE MANAGEMENT

TOPIC TO BE COVERED:
Definition of problem solving.
Relationships among problem solving, decision making and choice making.
AOM as problem solver.
Problem solving and productivity.
Problem solving process.
Barriers in solving office problem.
OFFICE PROBLEM USUALLY FALL INTO TWO CATEGORIES:
1) Involves the destruction, removal or containment of something present but not desired such as absenteeism, noise, inaccurate accounting, or poor morale.

2) Involves acquiring something nor present but desired such as creating good working relationship, achieving a high performance rating as an office supervisor or receiving promotion
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROBLEM SOLVING , DECISION MAKING AND CHOICE MAKING
1) Problem solving
-Process of recognizing or identifying a discrepancy between an actual and a desired state of an affair and then taking action to resolved the discrepancy

2) Decision making
- Include problem solving activities that range from recognition of a problem through the choice of preferred situation.

3) Choice making
- Represent process of evaluating and selecting among alternatives available to sove a problem.
Steps in Decision Making
Administrative Office Manager as Problem Solvers
Responsible for solving many
basic functional problems
, such as:

Setting the objective.
Organizing the employees, equipment and space to meet these objectives.
Directing and supervising the workforce in a productive manner.
Putting into place controls over systems and procedures to ensure high levels of productivity are maintained.
DEFINITION OF PROBLEM:
1)Two common definitions of problem:
A problem is a question to be answered.
CHAPTER 4: PROBLEM SOLVING IN OFFICE MANAGEMENT
A problem is considered as the difference between what is (present condition) and what should be(the goal)- the difference between that what is known and that which is unknown but desired.
2)If undesired circumstance exist over which managers have no control, then no problem exist.
1) Defining and limiting the problem.
2) Analyzing the problem.
3) Defining criteria to be used in evaluating various solution.
4) Gathering the data information.
5) Identifying and evaluating possible solutions.
6) Selecting the best solution.
7) Implement the solution.
*continue...
ASOM face
operating problem
that put into action the policies made by top management:

Routine Problem
that are well structured and that occur regularly with the operation of the business.
E.g. reordering office supplies and the recruiting of office employees.

No Routine Problem
that are unique and that require creative solution.
E.g. setting new branch, converting from manual to a computerized filling systems and dealing with an unexpected drop in office productivity.




Productivity
The ratio between the resources (inputs) used by a business firm (e.g. hours of labor) and what the firm realizes from using those resources
The value of output produced outweighs the costs of the inputs and the costs of the throughput
Concept of Office Productivity
Value of Output
Input + throughput costs
Value of Output
Input + throughput costs
THE UNPRODUCTIVE OFFICE
THE PRODUCTIVE OFFICE
Problem Solving Process
The present conditions fall to meet the conditions desired
Understand the nature of problem before that understanding can be turned into action
A systematic approach to solving problems is required
Problem-Solving Environment
Include the conditions surrounding the problems and the specific factors directly involve in its solution.
There are two principle features:
Multicultural background
Human attitudes
Multicultural Background
Multicultural background plays important roles in the problem solving.
Persons born and reared in rural areas develop value very different from people living in metropolitan areas.
Ethnics groups with different backgrounds bring different value and attitude to the workplace.
Human Attitude
Our diverse cultural background are responsible for developing attitudes that each of us bring to our job.
Important factors in solving problem
Our attitudes towards ourselves
Our attitudes towards other worker
( supervisor and coworkers)
Our attitudes towards the work
Attitudes are complex mental outlooks and difficult to change.
The most common and serious human attitude in problem solving is resistance to change.

The Desired State
condition of an office operation is described in the statement of objective, goals or expected outcomes toward which all office work is directed.
Eg) of
General Objectives
Increasing productivity
Reducing office expenses
To be useful, such general objective must be converted into more specific objective.
Eg) of
Specific Objectives
Increasing productivity of customers' billing by 10% without a corresponding increase in employees
Reducing office overtime expenses by 25%
Controllable and Uncontrollable Factors
Controllable
workers
work delegated
procedures to design for performing the work
what types of machine to buy
Uncontrollable
working hours set by top management
policies required to follow when purchase any machines
Problem Solving Abilities

The Problem solver needs both knowledge of the problem and a broad background concerning its possible causes.
Three types of human abilities:
Creative
1. Creative Ability
2. Logical Ability
3. Intuitive Ability

Creative Ability
Our ability to apply imagination and ingenuity or a unique solution to a problem.
The creative office worker is one who can develop useful ideas for solving problem.
Technique to develop creative:
Brainstorming
Idea Quote
Forced Relationship
Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
Brainstorming
Group technique for creating a large quantity of ideas by freewheeling contributions made without criticism.
Four rules in brainstorming:
Defer judgement - initially the group does not stop to decide whether the ideas are worthwhile or not.

Freewheel without concern for the ideas of others.
Do not wait for an ideas to come but rather develop another idea.
Aim for a quantity of ideas as a goal.
Idea Quota
is another technique for stimulating the creation of ideas which a fixed number of new ideas is required in a stated period of time.


Eg- five ways to reduce proofreading errors in one minute.
Forced Relationship
requires problem solver to consider in a new way something that is already known.
Nominal Group Technique (NGT)
Useful for solving problems related to office productivity improvement.
Participant work alone, silently, in small number interaction group of five to nine person.
Writing with possible solution, through the idea guided by facilitator, members to read their idea aloud without criticism or discussion, idea are recorded, discussed and clarified as needed then participant individually and silently rate all alternative solutions in priority order.
Problem Solving:- Logical Abilities
Creativity and logic work together in the difficult task of problem solving.
The effective use of logic requires us to collect relevant, current facts; to use them in orderly, unbiased way; and to reason in a systematic, analytical manner with an open mind to solve the problem.
Intuitive Ability
Experienced managers or is made up of intuition.
The emotional meanings and judgement that managers develop based on long years of experience using method that have worked well for them.
By using fewer people to make decision than the logical, systematic problem solver, intuitive thinkers can solve quickly to consider more simplified solutions than other types of problem solver.
They run the risk of ignoring and failing to consider all aspect of a problem.
Steps in Solving Process
Recognizing The Problem
Collecting Relevant Information
Developing Alternate Solutions
Implementing The Solution
Deciding The Problem
Analyzing Relevant Information
Choosing The Best Solution (Making The Decision)
Evaluating The Result
Symptoms are not problems
Symptoms are signs indicating that a problem may exist
The main issues of the problems are and clarifying the major goals and actual operating results
Use of relevant information is important
WHAT is the real problem, elements and symptoms?
WHERE did problem occur?
HOW it occurred?
Able to analyze the main aspects of the problem, piecing together as much information as possible to ensure an accurate picture of the situation
Developing a set of hypotheses
Reasons for choosing:
Take less time
Will be more effective
Will be preferred by employees and management
Putting the selected solution to work
Two factors are evaluated:
Quantity (how much is produced?)
Quality (how satisfactory or convenient?)
Involves:
Self criticism of group's solution
Reviewing present work processes for future improvements
Barriers in Solving Office Problems
Barriers in Solving Office Problems:
Human Problems


Relate to attitudes and biases, ethical concepts and value systems, motivation and interest in the job, fear of losing job or respect, and lack of personal skills.
Advances in IT creates many forms of
special human problems.
Other traits:
Limited memory, can process limited info, simultaneously, limited computational abilities, influences by organizational environment, and usually work under stress.

For that reason, there is need to:
Design satisfying jobs
Protect the privacy of employee information
Ensure that jobs will continue
Provide retraining
Resolve power struggles among leader in Office Administrative (OA)

Barriers in Solving Office Problems:
Human Problems

Our subjective, intangible and emotional nature.
Basic qualifications
for solving human problems:
Trust, fair-mindedness, patience, good judgement, and common sense.
Barriers in Solving Problems:
Systems Problems
Systems set to accomplish assigned work.
Problems are more objective and measurable than human problems.
For example:
Expensive machines, machine breakdowns and poor working conditions.
Barriers in Solving Office Problems:
Economic Problems
Money
is doubtless the basic means by which all organizations (
profit and not for profit
)
For example:
High energy costs, money, time, low productivity, theft of company property and low office budget.

The typical economic problem we find in offices is that too much money is being spent for the resulting amount of output.
Basic Elements of the Problems
Human resources
Space
Machine and Equipment
Time
System and Procedures
Other resources
Basic Elements of the Problem: The Present State
A problem to be solve can be viewed as a state or condition that requires improvement or obtain valid information on a subject about which information is lacking
Current Office Problem (The Present State)
Low morale of key office workers
Unequal distribution of work within the office
Difficulties in accessing records requested from the electronic files
Workers bored by so-called dull paper-filing tasks
Too much work for size of the staff
Inability of supervisor to delegate tasks
Collecting Relevant Information
WHAT is the real problem, elements and symptoms?
WHERE did problem occur?
Presented by:
Syikin Seth
Syawina Samsudin
Syakira Ayob
Hidayah Mansor
Syafiza Jamil
Erysha Adzmi

Pop Quiz
1. Ethnic groups with widely differing background and value is a principle of which problem solving environment?
2. Which of the following is TRUE of routine problems that are typically faced by the administrative office managers?
a. They are unique
b. They are well structured and occur regularly
c. They are not structured and occur rarely
d. They require creative solutions
3. List SEVEN steps in decision making process?
4. Below are several factors that can be controlled by the office manager EXCEPT
a. Delegating work
b. Buying machine
c. Hiring workers
d. Policies on buying machines or office equipment
5. State SIX principle elements causing problems in the office.
6. Absenteeism, noise, inaccurate accounting work, and poor morale are an example of office problem that involve the _______ , removal or containment of something present but not desired.
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