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STI Biology Project

By: Albert, Laura and Ron
by

l h

on 6 December 2016

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Transcript of STI Biology Project

T
I
STI BIOLOGY PROJECT
BY:
ALBERT,
LAURA +
RON
What is an STI?
STI is short for Sexually Transmitted Infection
It is a label for diseases or infections generally exclusive to sexual activities
Sexual activities include the usage of genitalia (with some STI's the mouth as well)
They are just illnesses and infections with a different method of transmission

Gonorrhea

I. INTRO
Caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae
As bacteria it is able to infect any mucous membrane
It causes inflammation in the infected area
which can cause burning sensations
Internal inflammation may cause discoloring of secretions or cause undesired secretions
It takes the bacteria 1-14 days to incubate and start affecting the body
Transmitted by any contact with the infected area
Innately is just a very inconvenient infection
Overtime the infection will spread around the genitalia
Swelling of testes, fallopian tubes or other reproductive organs can occur
Swelling in the correct areas can lead to infertility
Mothers with vaginal gonorrhea are able to pass it on to their children
There is a risk of blood infection which leads to death
Infected children also experience Conjunctivitis AKA Pink Eye

II. PREVALENCE
It is not very common in Canada or the United States
33-38 cases per 100 000 people in Canada
111-150 cases per 100 000 people in the USA (ages 15-24)
Reported amounts have been growing at a slow, but steady rate

III. TREATMENT & PREVENTION
Is curable with the thorough use of antibiotics such as:
Tequin®, Levaquin®, Cipro® XR
Ensure proper finishing of antibiotics
Avoid sex until the infection dissipates
Prevention is straightforward:
Don’t have sex with someone who has active gonorrhea infections
AIDS
S
I. INTRODUCTION
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
Caused by the HIV virus (human immunodeficiency virus)
Will destroy the human immune system: helper T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells
With these cells missing body immunity is crippled
Crippling of immune system will allow any other infection to occur
New immune-less body succumbs to all other diseases and infections
Virus can only be spread via sexual contact, or by direct blood contact with the virus
Symptoms will most likely by caused by other illnesses
Must take blood test to determine if infected


II. PREVALENCE
Only 0.3% of Canadians carry the HIV virus
Swaziland has a 26.5% carrying rate of the HIV virus (Known for their AIDS situation)
HIV virus slowly decreasing in 1st world countries

III. TREATMENT & PREVENTION
There is no cure or vaccine for the virus
The nature of the virus prevents any possible self recovery
Life is prolonged through extensive use of antibiotics
Prevent any sexual contact with those who carry the virus
Make no blood contact with used syringes or unidentified blood

CHLAMYDIA
I. INTRODUCTION


It is caused by the bacteria
Chlamydia trachomatis

• Transmitted through various means such as oral, vaginal and anal sex
• Easily passed on because often times, no visible symptoms appear
• If they do, it can include: painful urination,
cloudy/abnormal discharge and swelling or inflammation of genitals
• If untreated, it can cause infertility

II. PREVALENCE
• The most common STI in Canada
• Common in both men and woman
•Most affected group is women between 15-24
• Growth rate has been steadily increasing since 1997
• 72% increase since 2001-2010
• A report indicated that an approximate 95,000 people were diagnosed with Chlamydia in Canada
• In 2012, 460 of 100,000 people were affected with Chlamydia in USA
• In addition to this, an estimated 1 425 000 people had been reported with Chlamydia
III. TREATMENT & PREVENTION
• There are three main ways to prevent Chlamydia: abstinence, using some form of contraception or being in a long term relationship with someone who has been tested and has negative results
• Chlamydia can be cured using prescribed medication such as antibiotics
• It is important to have a check up three months afterwards to be tested even after being treated
• A person with Chlamydia should not have sex until safe and after following certain precautions
BIBLIOGRAPHY
http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-sante/sexual-sexuelle/gonorrh-eng.php
http://intheknowpeel.ca/stiaids/list.htm
http://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/stdfact-gonorrhea.htm


http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/gonorrhoea-pro
http://www.webmd.com/sexual-conditions/ss/slideshow-std-pictures-and-facts
http://www.humanillnesses.com/Infectious-Diseases-Co-Ha/Gonorrhea.html


http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-topics/stds-hiv-safer-sex/gonorrhea-4269.htm
http://www.medicinenet.com/oral_gonorrhea_symptoms/views.htm
http://www.patient.co.uk/health/urethritis-and-urethral-discharge-in-men


http://www.webmd.com/baby/pregnancy-sexually-transmitted-diseases
http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-sante/sexual-sexuelle/herpes-eng.php
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gonorrhea/basics/complications/con-20020917


http://www.ippf.org/our-work/what-we-do/womens-health/infertility
http://www.std-gov.org/stds/gonorrhea.htm
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001368.htm


http://www.aad.org/dermatology-a-to-z/diseases-and-treatments/e---h/herpes-simplex/tips
http://www.health.com/health/condition-article/0,,20189608,00.html
http://www.motherearthnews.com/natural-health/facts-about-herpes-


zmaz81mazraw.aspx#axzz32Izzq6ZQ
http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/content/30/4/119
http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/86/10/07-046128/en/


http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2011/04/latest-genital-herpes
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/report/sti-its2008/06-eng.php
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/cphorsphc-respcacsp/2013/sti-its-eng.php
http://www.rightdiagnosis.com/g/gonorrhea/prevalence.htm



III. TREATMENT & PREVENTION
As a viral infection Herpes has been deemed incurable and no proper vaccine exists
Keep the immune system healthy
Keep genitals and mouth cleanly
If infected, countless anti-viral ointments can be used to slow or prevent further viral infection
Quite annoying, not lethal

II. PREVALENCE
Extremely common (50%-85% World)
55% of Canadians (Age 15-17)
Has a very similar prevalence rating to the common cold
Many people are carriers of the virus
Studies often leave cold sores out of the data
Individuals are included if they carry HSV antibodies


I. INTRODUCTION
Also known as cold sores (mainly HSV-1 induced)
Caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2)
Fluid filled blisters will appear in the infected area
These blisters will often rub against enclosed areas causing inflammation
Symptoms will last for a period of time and then subside
Extremely contagious, can be spread through bare contact
Childbirth infection risks are very low, potentially deadly
Mothers may have a cesarean section to prevent infection
It is possible to carry the virus and be unaware
No drug is able to kill the virus with 100% success

Herpes
SYPHILLIS
I. INTRODUCTION
• Transmitted by direct contact
• Pregnant women can infect her unborn child
• The syphilis bacterium is not resistant to environments outside of a host
• Best way to prevent contraction of syphilis is avoiding sexual contact
•Latex condoms: effective method to reduce the risk of contracting syphilis, does not completely eliminate the risk of contracting syphilis
• Reducing alcohol consumption: Reduces risky sexual behaviour
•Testing pregnant women: Testing pregnant women during early pregnancy can help prevent the transmission of syphilis to the child
III. TREATMENT & PREVENTION
•Testing pregnant women: Testing pregnant women during early pregnancy can help prevent the transmission of syphilis to the child. The mother as well as the father can be treated for
• Diagnosed by doing blood tests, as well as examination of sores and lesions
•If early infection: small doses of penicillin are recommended.
• If patient is pregnant, other antibiotics are used to avoid birth defects such as tetracycline
•If late infection: larger doses of penicillin would be required to treat syphilis and is still very effective
•If the patient if pregnant or allergic to penicillin, then other medications can be used (tetracycline)
• If infection is late, syphilis may have reached the central nervous system. The same medication can be used to treat late infections but permanent damage may still remain
II. PREVALENCE

CANADA
• Syphilis has always been a well known STI in Canada
• More recently, a larger number of syphilis cases has been reporting in Canada
• Before 2001, syphilis cases have been rare
• Syphilis affects more men in Canada than women
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

Syphilis was much more common before the year 2000
• 4 times as common in men than in women
Primary Syphillis

Secondary Syphillis

Tertiary Syphillis
Full transcript