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Art History Timeline Project

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Benjamin Lorber

on 9 March 2017

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Transcript of Art History Timeline Project

Renaissance

12th-16th Centuries
Realism
Impressionism

Fauvism
Post
Impressionism

Art History Timeline Project
Delaney, Benjamin, Brody, Brian, and Joe
Period 6

Expressionism
Cubism
Harlem Renaissance
Bauhaus
Gothic
Precisionism
Surrealism
Abstract
Expressionism

Pop
Minimalism
Hyperrealism
Photorealism
Op
Graffiti
Conceptualism
Origin: France
1899 through 1908
Origin: France
1964 through present

Origin: Germany
1300s through 500s
Origin: Italy
Early 1880s through 1914

Origin: London
1907 to 1922
Political leaders:
Armand Fallières
Major events:
World War I, the prohibition of alcohol in the U.S.
An art movement in the 1920s and 30s created by the Bauhaus Art school in Germany. It emphasised simplicity and the use of geometric shapes and simple colors to create prints and papercraft. It was a rebellion against past art styles of impressionism which focused on soft shapes and complex color schemes. It also seeked to incorporate artistic design into everyday life. political leaders at the time: Adolf Hitler Notable artists were Marcel Breuer Herbert Bayer Walter Gropius

of or in the style of architecture prevalent in western Europe in the 12th–16th centuries, characterized by pointed arches, rib vaults, and flying buttresses, together with large windows and elaborate tracery.

Europe becomes a big Feudalist society but also has a time of prosperity.


Henry II
What is Gothic Art?
2 Major Events:
Political Leader
Brief Biography Artist 1
Bonaventura Berlinghieri 1215–1242 Italian Painter
, He was the son of painter Berlinghiero Berlinghieri and the brother of Barone and Marco Berlinghieri. Bonaventura painted several panels and wall-paintings at Lucca, in 1235 and 1244. He is most famous for an altarpiece dedicated to the life of Francis of Assisi. This altarpiece is painted in tempera on wood in the Byzantine or maniera greca style. It depicts the stigmata as well as several scenes from the saint's life. This altarpiece is housed in the Church of San Francesco of Pescia where it can be seen today.
Bonaventura Berlinghieri, St. Francis Altarpiece, 1235 (Church of San Francesco, Pescia, Italy)
Brief Biography Artist 2
Giovanni Pisano 1250–1314
, an Italian sculptor, painter and architect, who worked in the cities of Pisa, Siena and Pistoia. He is best known for his sculpture which shows the influence of both the French Gothic and the Ancient Roman art. Henry Moore, referring to his statues for the facade of Siena Cathedral, called him "the first modern sculptor". He received his training in the workshop of his father and in 1265–1268 he worked with his father on the pulpit in Siena Cathedral. His next major work with his father was the
fountain Fontana Maggiore in Perugia
(completed 1278). Giovanni worked with Bronze.
Benjamin Lorber
Biography Artist 3
Duccio di Buoninsegna c. 1255–1260 – c. 1318–1319,
was an Italian painter, active in the city of Siena in Tuscany, where he was born, in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. Much about his early life and family is uncertain; but there are records that say he was married with 7 children. Although there is a lot still unconfirmed about Duccio and his life, there is more documentation of him than of other Italian painters of his time and earlier. A large part his life must be reconstructed from the evidence of works that can be attributed to him with certainty, and from the evidence contained in his stylistic development. Where, and with whom, Duccio studied under is still a matter of great debate, but by analyzing his style and technique art historians have been able to limit the field. Little is known of his painting career prior to his first documented commission in 1278, when, at the age of 23, he was hired to paint 12 wooden panels to cover government documents for The Nine. This work is now lost. Although Duccio was active from 1268 to about 1311 only approximately 13 of his works survive today. Only two of Duccio's surviving works can be securely dated. Both were major public commissions: the "Rucellai Madonna", commissioned in April 1285 by the Compagnia del Laudesi di Maria Vergine for a chapel in the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence, and the Maestà commissioned for the high altar of Siena Cathedral in 1308 and completed by June 1311.
LONG BIO
La Maestà del Duomo di Siena
Brief Biography Artist 4
Jean Pucelle (c. 1300 – 1355), active c. 1320-1350
, was a Parisian Gothic-era manuscript illuminator, excelling in the invention of drolleries, traditional iconography, and was considered one of the best miniaturists of the early 14th century.He worked primarily under the patronage of the royal court and is believed to be responsible for the introduction of the arte nuovo of Giotto and Duccio to Northern Gothic art, showing distinct influence from the Italian trecento art Duccio is credited with the creation of. His style is characterized by delicate figures rendered in grisaille, accented with touches of color. Pucelle's most famous works are The Hours of Jeanne d'Evreux, a private prayer book done as a royal commission to the queen of France Jeanne d'Évreux (c. 1324–28), his reflections of the Maestà (c. 1325) by Duccio in the Belleville Breviary and a Franciscan breviary presumed to have once been owned by Blanche of France. His earliest documented work is believed to be the design for the great seal of the Confraternity of the Hospital of St. Jacques-aux-Pelerins in Paris, indicating that Pucelle either worked or designed in a variety of media ranging from enamels to stained glass.
The Hours of Jeanne dEvreux, Queen of France
Duccio di Buoninsegna c. 1255–1260 – c. 1318–1319
the painting, sculpture and decorative arts of that period of European history known as the Renaissance, emerging as a distinct style in Italy in about 1400, in parallel with developments which occurred in philosophy, literature, music and science.


What is Renaissance Art?
2 major Events:
Edward I of England invests his baby son Edward as Prince of Wales (1301) & Hundred Year's War between Britain and France
Political Leader:
King Wenceslas II
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 1452 – 2 May 1519), was an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography. He has been variously called the father of palaeontology, ichnology, and architecture, and is widely considered one of the greatest painters of all time. Sometimes credited with the inventions of the parachute, helicopter and tank, he epitomised the Renaissance humanist ideal. Many historians and scholars regard Leonardo as the prime exemplar of the "Universal Genius" or "Renaissance Man", an individual of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". According to art historian Helen Gardner, the scope and depth of his interests were without precedent in recorded history, and "his mind and personality seem to us superhuman, while the man himself mysterious and remote". Marco Rosci notes that while there is much speculation regarding his life and personality, his view of the world was logical rather than mysterious, and that the empirical methods he employed were unorthodox for his time.
Brief Biography Artist 2
The harlem renaissance was a movement in the 1920s in New York City by African American artists beginning to gain popularity and creating volumes of art in the large period of thriving prosperity at the time. Many artists during this period flourished and created art influenced by african culture. Although this movement didnt have any real leader, recent advancements in civil rights and leaders of civil rights at the time, notably W.E B Dubouis.



Brief Biography Artist 1
Alessandro di Mariano di Vanni Filipepi, known as Sandro Botticelli (c. 1445 – May 17, 1510), was an Italian painter of the Early Renaissance. He belonged to the Florentine School under the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici, a movement that Giorgio Vasari would characterize less than a hundred years later in his Vita of Botticelli as a "golden age". Botticelli's posthumous reputation suffered until the late 19th century; since then, his work has been seen to represent the linear grace of Early Renaissance painting. Among Botticelli's best-known works are The Birth of Venus and Primavera.
Biography Artist 3
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni 6 March 1475 – 18 February 1564) was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, and poet of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. Considered to be the greatest living artist during his lifetime, he has since also been described as one of the greatest artists of all time. His versatility in the disciplines he took up was of such a high order that he is often considered a contender for the title of the archetypal Renaissance man, along with his rival and fellow Florentine Medici client, Leonardo da Vinci. A number of Michelangelo's works of painting, sculpture, and architecture rank among the most famous in existence. His output in every field of interest was prodigious; given the sheer volume of surviving correspondence, sketches, and reminiscences taken into account, he is the best-documented artist of the 16th century. He sculpted two of his best-known works, the Pietà and David, before the age of thirty.
Brief Biography Artist 4
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (April 6 or March 28, 1483 – April 6, 1520), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[4] Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career. The best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. After his early years in Rome much of his work was executed by his workshop from his drawings, with considerable loss of quality. He was extremely influential in his lifetime, though outside Rome his work was mostly known from his collaborative printmaking.

Aaron Douglas (May 26, 1899 – February 3, 1979[1]) was an African-American painter, illustrator and arts educator. He was a major figure in the Harlem Renaissance.Graduated from Nebraska university at Lincoln with a Bachelors of Art, moved to Harlem in 1925. His first major job was an illustrator for a book titled "The New Negro" He then on to make several works inspired by african cultural art and the Modernist movement. Best represented by black-and-white drawings with black silhouetted figures, as well as by portraits, landscapes, and murals, Douglas' art fused modernism with ancestral African images, including fetish motifs, masks, and artifacts. His work celebrates African American versatility and adaptability, depicting people in a variety of settings—from rural and urban scenes to churches to nightclubs. His illustrations in books by leading black writers established him as the black artist of the period. Later in his career, Douglas founded the Art Department at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee. Beginning in the 1920s, Douglas' illustrations appeared in books by James Weldon Johnson, Countee Cullen, Alain Locke, and other prominent black writers, activists, and intellectuals. They were also featured in such magazines as The Crisis, Opportunity, Harper's, and Vanity Fair. From the late 1920s through the 1940s, his art was shown across the United States at universities, galleries, hotels, and museums, including the Harmon Foundation in New York, the Museum of Fine Arts in Dallas, Howard University's Gallery of Art, the Brooklyn Museum, the Rhode Island School of Design Museum, and New York's Gallery of Modern Art. In addition, selected works by Douglas were assembled for a landmark traveling show of Harlem Renaissance artworks sponsored by the Studio Museum in Harlem in 1988. According to Driskell in an essay for Harlem Renaissance Art of Black America, "It was Douglas' own strength of character and inventive artistry that enabled him to have a lasting impact on the future course of black expression in art.
a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.


What is Impressionism?
2 major Events:

The word boycott entered the English language when tenant farmers in Ireland organized and refused to pay a landlord's agent whose name was Capt. Charles Boycott.

Political Leader:

Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone

Brief Biography Artist 1
Brief Biography Artist 2
Created in the early 20th century in France by
Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, Cubism was one of the most influential movements of its time, and can be described as the use of broken up objects that are reassembled in an abstract form.

Brief Biography Artist 1
Oscar-Claude Monet 14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. The term "Impressionism" is derived from the title of his painting Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which was exhibited in 1874 in the first of the independent exhibitions mounted by Monet and his associates as an alternative to the Salon de Paris. Monet's ambition of documenting the French countryside led him to adopt a method of painting the same scene many times in order to capture the changing of light and the passing of the seasons. From 1883 Monet lived in Giverny, where he purchased a house and property, and began a vast landscaping project which included lily ponds that would become the subjects of his best-known works. In 1899 he began painting the water lilies, first in vertical views with a Japanese bridge as a central feature, and later in the series of large-scale paintings that was to occupy him continuously for the next 20 years of his life.
Édouard Manet (23 January 1832 – 30 April 1883) was a French painter. He was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, and a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism. Born into an upper-class household with strong political connections, Manet rejected the future originally envisioned for him, and became engrossed in the world of painting. His early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) and Olympia, both 1863, caused great controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism. Today, these are considered watershed paintings that mark the genesis of modern art. The last 20 years of Manet's life saw him form bonds with other great artists of the time, and develop his own style that would be heralded as innovative and serve as a major influence for future painters.
Brief Biography Artist 2
Biography Artist 3
Edgar Degas (19 July 1834 – 27 September 1917) was a French artist famous for his paintings, sculptures, prints, and drawings. He is especially identified with the subject of dance; more than half of his works depict dancers. He is regarded as one of the founders of Impressionism, although he rejected the term, preferring to be called a realist. He was a superb draftsman, and particularly masterly in depicting movement, as can be seen in his rendition of dancers, racecourse subjects and female nudes. His portraits are notable for their psychological complexity and for their portrayal of human isolation. At the beginning of his career, Degas wanted to be a history painter, a calling for which he was well prepared by his rigorous academic training and close study of classic art. In his early thirties, he changed course, and by bringing the traditional methods of a history painter to bear on contemporary subject matter, he became a classical painter of modern life.
Brief Biography Artist 4
Mary Stevenson Cassatt (May 22, 1844 – June 14, 1926) was an American painter and printmaker. She was born in Pennsylvania, but lived much of her adult life in France, where she first befriended Edgar Degas and later exhibited among the Impressionists. Cassatt often created images of the social and private lives of women, with particular emphasis on the intimate bonds between mothers and children. She was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Marie Bracquemond and Berthe Morisot. Mary Cassatt depicted the "New Woman" of the 19th century from the woman's perspective. As a successful, highly trained woman artist who never married, Cassatt—like Ellen Day Hale, Elizabeth Coffin, Elizabeth Nourse and Cecilia Beaux—personified the "New Woman". She "initiated the profound beginnings in recreating the image of the 'new' women", drawn from the influence of her intelligent and active mother, Katherine Cassatt, who believed in educating women to be knowledgeable and socially active. She is depicted in Reading 'Le Figaro' (1878).
the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"), a loose group of early twentieth-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism.
What is Fauvism?
Major Events:

1st auto repair shop opens (Boston) & Great Galveston Hurricane killing from 6-12 thousand dead
Political Leader:
Émile Loubet
1899-1906. President of France
Brief Biography Artist 1
Vincent Willem van Gogh (30 March 1853 – 29 July 1890) was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade he created about 2100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings, most of them in the last two years of his life. They include landscapes, still lifes, portraits and self-portraits, and are characterised by bold colours and dramatic, impulsive and expressive brushwork that contributed to the foundations of modern art. His suicide at 37 followed years of mental illness and poverty. Born into an upper-middle-class family, Van Gogh drew as a child and was serious, quiet and thoughtful. As a young man he worked as an art dealer, often travelling, but became depressed after he was transferred to London. He turned to religion, and spent time as a missionary in southern Belgium. He drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881, having moved back home with his parents. His younger brother Theo supported him financially, and the two kept up a long correspondence by letter. His early works, mostly still lifes and depictions of peasant labourers, contain few signs of the vivid colour that distinguished his later work. In 1886 he moved to Paris where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility. As his work developed he created a new approach to still lifes and local landscapes. His paintings grew brighter in colour as he developed a style that became fully realised during his stay in Arles in the south of France in 1888. During this period he broadened his subject matter to include olive trees, cypresses, wheat fields and sunflowers.
Brief Biography Artist 2
Maurice de Vlaminck (4 April 1876 – 11 October 1958) was a French painter. Along with André Derain and Henri Matisse he is considered one of the principal figures in the Fauve movement, a group of modern artists who from 1904 to 1908 were united in their use of intense colour.[1] Vlaminck was one of the Fauves at the controversial Salon d'Automne exhibition of 1905. Two of Vlaminck's groundbreaking paintings, Sur le zinc (At the Bar) and L'homme a la pipe (Man Smoking a Pipe) were painted in 1900. For the next few years Vlaminck lived in or near Chatou (the inspiration for his painting houses at Chatou), painting and exhibiting alongside Derain, Matisse, and other Fauvist painters. At this time his exuberant paint application and vibrant use of colour displayed the influence of Vincent van Gogh. Sur le zinc called to mind the work of Toulouse-Lautrec and his portrayals of prostitutes and solitary drinkers, but does not attempt to probe the sitter's psychology—a break with the century-old European tradition of individualized portraiture. According to art critic Souren Melikian, it is "the impersonal cartoon of a type.
Biography Artist 3
Henri-Émile-Benoît Matisse (31 December 1869 – 3 November 1954) was a French artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter. Matisse is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso and Marcel Duchamp, as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts throughout the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. Although he was initially labeled a Fauve (wild beast), by the 1920s he was increasingly hailed as an upholder of the classical tradition in French painting His mastery of the expressive language of colour and drawing, displayed in a body of work spanning over a half-century, won him recognition as a leading figure in modern art.
Brief Biography Artist 4
Raoul Dufy (3 June 1877 – 23 March 1953) was a French Fauvist painter, brother of Jean Dufy. He developed a colorful, decorative style that became fashionable for designs of ceramics and textiles, as well as decorative schemes for public buildings. He is noted for scenes of open-air social events. He was also a draftsman, printmaker, book illustrator, scenic designer, a designer of furniture, and a planner of public spaces. Henri Matisse's Luxe, Calme et Volupté, which Dufy saw at the Salon des Indépendants in 1905, was a revelation to the young artist, and it directed his interests towards Fauvism. Les Fauves (the wild beasts) emphasized bright color and bold contours in their work. Dufy's painting reflected this aesthetic until about 1909, when contact with the work of Paul Cézanne led him to adopt a somewhat subtler technique. It was not until 1920, however, after he had flirted briefly with yet another style, cubism, that Dufy developed his own distinctive approach. It involved skeletal structures, arranged with foreshortened perspective, and the use of thin washes of color applied quickly, in a manner that came to be known as stenographic.
a style of visual art that uses optical illusions. Op art works are abstract, with many better known pieces created in black and white. Typically, they give the viewer the impression of movement, hidden images, flashing and vibrating patterns, or of swelling or warping.
What is Op?
2 major Events:

Panama severs diplomatic relations with US & Black & Puerto Rican students boycott NYC public schools
Political Leader:

John F. Kennedy 1961-1963
Brief Biography Artist 1
Yaacov Agam (born 11 May 1928) is an Israeli sculptor and experimental artist best known for his contributions to optical and kinetic art. gam's work is usually abstract, kinetic art, with movement, viewer participation and frequent use of light and sound. His works are placed in many public places. His best known pieces include "Double Metamorphosis III" (1965), "Visual Music Orchestration" (1989) and fountains at the La Défense district in Paris (1975) and the "Fire and Water Fountain" in the Dizengoff Square in Tel Aviv (1986). He is also known for a type of print known as an Agamograph, which uses lenticular printing to present radically different images, depending on the angle from which it is viewed. The lenticular technique was executed in large scale in the 30 "Complex Vision" (1969) which adorns the facade of the Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital in Birmingham, Alabama. Agam had a retrospective exhibition in Paris at the Musée National d'Art Moderne in 1972, and at the Guggenheim Museum in New York in 1980, among others. His works are held in numerous museum collections including the Museum of Modern Art and the Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum. He is the subject of two documentary films by American filmmaker Warren Forma: "Possibilities of Agam" (1967) and "Agam and..." (1980). In 1996, he was awarded the Jan Amos Comenius Medal by UNESCO for the "Agam Method" for visual education of young children. He designed and created the winner's trophy for the 1999 Eurovision Song Contest that was held in Jerusalem.
Brief Biography Artist 2
Julian Stanczak (born in Borownica, Poland on November 5, 1928) is an American painter and printmaker of Polish origin. The artist lives and works in Seven Hills, Ohio with his wife, Barbara Stanczak, an accomplished sculptor. The Op Art movement was named after his first major show, Julian Stanczak: Optical Paintings, held at the Martha Jackson Gallery in New York in 1964. His work was included in the Museum of Modern Art's 1965 exhibition The Responsive Eye. In 1966 he was named a "New Talent" by Art in America magazine. In the early 1960s he began to make the surface plane of the painting vibrate through his use of wavy lines and contrasting colors in works such as Provocative Current (1965). These paintings gave way to more complex compositions constructed with geometric rigidity yet softened with varying degrees of color transparency such as Netted Green (1972). In addition to being an artist, Stanczak was also a teacher, having worked at the Art Academy of Cincinnati from 1957–64 and as Professor of Painting, at the Cleveland Institute of Art, 1964-1995. He was named "Outstanding American Educator" by the Educators of America in 1970.Style. Stanczak uses repeating forms to create compositions that are manifestations of his visual experiences.


Jacob Lawrence (Atlantic City, NJ September 7, 1917; Seattle June 9, 2000) was an African-American painter known for his portrayal of African-American life. But not only was he a painter, storyteller, and interpreter; he also was an educator. Lawrence referred to his style as "dynamic cubism," though by his own account the primary influence was not so much French art as the shapes and colors of Harlem.[1] He brought the African-American experience to life using blacks and browns juxtaposed with vivid colors. He also taught, and spent 15 years as a professor at the University of Washington.[2] Lawrence is among the best-known 20th-century African-American painters. He was 23 years old when he gained national recognition with his 60-panel Migration Series,[3] painted on cardboard. The series depicted the Great Migration of African Americans from the rural South to the urban North. A part of this series was featured in a 1941 issue of Fortune Magazine. The collection is now held by two museums. Lawrence's works are in the permanent collections of numerous museums, including the Philadelphia Museum of Art, the Museum of Modern Art, the Whitney Museum, the Phillips Collection, Metropolitan Museum of Art, the Brooklyn Museum, and Reynolda House Museum of American Art. He is widely known for his modernist illustrations of everyday life as well as epic narratives of African American history and historical figures. He developed a style of modernism and published his series "The Migration"
Biography Artist 3
Victor Vasarely (9 April 1906 – 15 March 1997), was a Hungarian–French artist, who is widely accepted as a "grandfather" and leader of the short-lived op art movement. His work entitled Zebra, created in the 1930s, is considered by some to be one of the earliest examples of op art. On 5 June 1970, Vasarely opened his first dedicated museum with over 500 works in a renaissance palace in Gordes (closed in 1996). A second major undertaking was the Foundation Vasarely in Aix-en-Provence, a museum housed in a distinct structure specially designed by Vasarely. It was inaugurated in 1976 by French president Georges Pompidou. Sadly the museum is now in a state of disrepair, several of the pieces on display have been damaged by water leaking from the ceiling. Also, in 1976 his large kinematic object Georges Pompidou was installed in the Centre Pompidou in Paris and the Vasarely Museum located at his birthplace in Pécs, Hungary, was established with a large donation of works by Vasarely. In the same decade, he took a stab at industrial design with a 500-piece run of the upscale Suomi tableware by Timo Sarpaneva that Vasarely decorated for the German Rosenthal porcelain maker's Studio Linie In 1982 154 specially created serigraphs were taken into space by the cosmonaut Jean-Loup Chrétien on board the French-Soviet spacecraft Salyut and later sold for the benefit of UNESCO. In 1987, the second Hungarian Vasarely museum was established in Zichy Palace in Budapest with more than 400 works.
Biography Artist 4
Bridget Louise Riley (born 24 April 1931 in Norwood, London) is an English painter who is one of the foremost exponents of Op art. She currently lives and works in London, Cornwall and the Vaucluse in France. It was during this time that Riley began to paint the black and white works for which she is best known. They present a great variety of geometric forms that produce sensations of movement or colour. In the early 1960s, her works were said to induce sensation in viewers as varied as seasick and sky diving. From 1961 to 1964 she worked with the contrast of black and white, occasionally introducing tonal scales of grey. Works in this style comprised her first 1962 solo show at Musgrave's Gallery One, as well as numerous subsequent shows. For example, in Fall, a single perpendiculars curve is repeated to create a field of varying optical frequencies. Visually, these works relate to many concerns of the period: a perceived need for audience participation (this relates them to the Happenings, for which the period is famous), challenges to the notion of the mind-body duality which led Aldous Huxley to experiment with hallucinogenic drugs[citation needed]; concerns with a tension between a scientific future which might be very beneficial or might lead to a nuclear war; and fears about the loss of genuine individual experience in a Brave New World. Her paintings have, since 1961, been executed by assistants from her own endlessly edited studies. Riley began investigating colour in 1967, the year in which she produced her first stripe painting. Following a major retrospective in the early 1970s, Riley began travelling extensively. After a trip to Egypt in the early 1980s, where she was inspired by colourful hieroglyphic decoration, Riley began to explore colour and contrast.[14] In some works, lines of colour are used to create a shimmering effect, while in others the canvas is filled with tessellating patterns.
Delaney O'Donnell
Delaney O'Donnell
Delaney O'Donnell
Delaney O'Donnell
Pablo Picasso was a spanish scupltor, printmaker, poet, playwrite, and most importantly painter born in 1881 who helped to co-found the Cubism movement, among other things. As a child He displayed a talent for art, and he soon went to the
Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando (Royal Academy of Fine Arts of San Fernando)
where his style in art began to change. His style changed multiple times and has been separated into many periods. After those small style changes he began switching to various movements, and kept painting until his death in 1973, believing that his work would keep him alive.
Femme au café (Absinthe Drinker)

Oil on canvas

Hermitage Museum, Sankt Petersburg, Russia
Au Lapin Agile (At the Lapin Agile)

Oil on canvas

Metropolitan Museum of Art
Maisons et arbre

Oil on canvas

Lille Métropole Museum of Modern, Contemporary and Outsider Art
Plate and Fruit Dish

Oil on canvas

Private collection
Georges Braque was a French printmaker, sculptor, and painter born in 1882, who helped to co-found the Cubism movement. During his early years of art, after graduating from École des Beaux-Arts, he began with making Impressionistic art, but was quick to join the Fauves (beast) in 1905/ In 1908 he yet again joined a new movement, Cubism which he co-founded along with Pablo Picasso over shadowing him. The two artist worked very closely until the beginning of World War 1, when Braque enlisted in the French Army and suffered a severe head injury that rendered him temporary blind. In 1916 he took up painting once more, this time alone and using a more personal style, which could be characterized by bright colors and textured surfaces. He continued to work until the end of his life in 1963.
Realism was a major art movement created in France that was made a few years after the 1848 Revolution. The movement rejected the Romanticism movement, which had dominated most French art and literature before, and attempted to represent whatever it was depicting with as much accuracy as possible.
1850's through 1880's
Major events:
The American Civil war takes place, and the Impressionism movement is created.
Political leaders:

Napoleon the III
Brief Biography Artist 1
Brief Biography Artist 2
Jean-François Millet was a French painter who was born into a small peasant community. There he learned Latin and gained knowledge of the then modern authors before he was sent to study with a portrait painter in 1833. Two years later, he was studying full time with Lucien-Theophile Langlois, who helped in getting Millet to Paris where he then studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In 1839 they terminated his solarship and the Salon rejected his submission. He was then accepted into the Salon a year later after he created his first portrait, he soon after began life as a portrait painter. He settled in Barbizon 1849 with his family, where he continued to produce art until his death in 1875.
The Gleaners
Oil on canvas
Musée d'Orsay, Paris
The Sower
Oil on canvas
Museum of fine arts, Boston
Gustave Courbet was a French painter who lead the Realist movement in the 19th century. Courbet was born into a well off farming family, and moved to Paris in 1839. He worked at a studio when he got there and left soon after preferring his own style. He started by copying other works of art and romanticism like portraits, but later found himself basing his paintings on observed reality. In 1849 he entered into the Salon and won with his painting
After Dinner at Ornans
, selling it to the state. Some time later, he painted the scene of his grand uncles funeral, which lead to him becoming a celebrity. In 1871 he was imprisoned for involvement with the Paris Commune. After his release six months later he was exiled to Switzerland until his demise in 1873.
A burial at Omens
Oil on canvas
Musee d'Orsay
The Wave (La Vague)
Oil on canvas
Museum of Fine Arts of Lyon
Brief Biography Artist 1
Brief Biography Artist 2
1924-1966
Political leader:

Gaston Doumergue
Major events:
photorealism is created, Vietnam war
Surrealism is an art movement which began in Paris, France in the early 1920's. The goal of the movement was to "resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality" which allowed many artist to create whatever they imagined. Many surrealist artist sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination, because of this many surrealist had a distaste for realism and rationalism, believing that they weighed down ones imagination.
The Persistence of Memory
Oil on canvas
Museum of modern art
New York
The Elephants
Oil on canvas
Private collection
Salvador Dali was a spanish painter born in 1904 who was prominent in the surrealist movement. Dali's parents believed that he was a reincarnation of his deceased brother, something which Dali even believed himself. Dali attended drawing school, and discovered modern painting in 1916 while on a trip to Cadaqués. At age 16 Dali's mother died of breast cancer, a great blow to Dali. 1922, Dali moved into the Residencia de Estudiantes (Student resistance) in Madrid and studied at Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando. In the Residencia he gained the attention of his fellow students when his paintings experimented with Cubism. He was expelled in 1926 when he was accused of starting an unrest. That same year he traveled to Paris, meeting Pablo Picasso. Over the years he integrated any styles into his future works, and was a surrealist by 1929. In 1940 he and his wife fled to the U.S. during WW2 and moved back to Spain in 1948 after the war. He continued to paint until his death in 1989, when he died of heart failure.
1918 to 1937
Ubu Imperator
Oil on canvas
Musée National d'Art Moderne
1919-1933
What is Bauhaus?
L'Ange du Foyer
Oil on canvas
Private collection
Max Ernst was a German sculptor, poet, and painter born in 1891, and was a primary painter in the Dada and surrealism movements. Ernst was born into a middle class catholic family; his father was an amateur painter, a teacher of the deaf, a strong Christian, and a strict disciplinarian. His father had influenced him to both, take up painting, and to defy authority. He decided to become an artist in 1911, joining the
Die Rheinischen Expressionisten
group. In 1914 Ernst was drafted, serving on both the western and eastern front. He described his time in the army with this quote, "On the first of August 1914 Max Ernst died. He was resurrected on the eleventh of November 1918." Upon his "resurrection" he joined the Dada and surrealist art movements. When WW2 broke out, a series of events lead him to escape to America. He settled in the remote Sedona, Arizona, where he lived out the rest of his life until 1976
1960's - Present
Political leader:

John F. Kennedy
Major events:

Vietnam war, civil rights movements.
Photorealism is an art movement create in the 1960's in the United States. The movement is all based around the photograph the artist will attempt to recreate a photograph with paint, ink, etc and therefore cannot exist without the camera. It began as an evolution of Pop art, and a counter to the Abstract Expressionism and Minimalist movements. This art movement is still currently on going.
What is Photorealism?
What is Surrealism?
What is Cubism?
What is Realism?
Brief Biography Artist 2
Brief Biography Artist 1
John's Diner with John's Chevelle
Oil on canvas
Private collection
T Diner
Watercolor
Location unknown, may be in an art auction.
Origin: France
What is Harlem Renaissance?
John Baeder is an American photographer and painter born in 1938 in the photorealistic art movement. He is most commonly known for his paintings of diners. He was born in South Bend, Indiana but was raised in Atlanta, Georgia. Eventually an interest in small towns developed in him when he was younger, mixed with the constant trips between Alabama and Atlanta while attending Aubum University, drew his attention to rural landscapes and small diners. He began work as an art director for a branch of a New York advertising agency in 1960, and moved to New York City four years later. His career was successful during the 1970's, during which he continued to make art. In 1972 he quit his job to pursue life as a full time artist. Baeder now lives in Nashville Tennessee as an artist.
art for which the idea (or concept) behind the work is more important than the finished art object. It emerged as an art movement in the 1960s and the term usually refers to art made from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s.
What is Conceptualism?
Telephone Booths
Oil on canvas
Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum
Antarctica
Oil on canvas
Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art
Richard Estes is an American artist born in 1932 in the photorealist movement. His art often consist of reflective, clean, and inanimate cities or geometric landscapes. He was born in Kewanee Illinois, and moved to Chicago at an early age to study fine arts at The Art Institute of Chicago during 1952 to 1956. After his courses were completed he moved to New York City and worked as a graphic artist for magazines and advertisers while painting in his spare time for the next decade. He moved to Spain in 1962 and was able to work as an artist full-time by 1966. Around 1967 he began to paint simple city things such as stores and office buildings, purposefully avoiding any landmarks. Estes has been widely regarded as a leading painter and one of the founders of the photorealism movement.
Origin: United States
Origin: France
Origin: France
Origin: United States
Portrait of Picasso
Oil on canvas
The Art Institute of Chicago
Woman with Mandolin, after Corot
Oil on canvas
Kunstmuseum Basel, Switzerland
Juan Gris was a Spanish painter and sculptor born in 1887 who lived most of his life in France; he was closely associated with the Cubism movement, many of his works being among the most distinctive. Gris was born in Madrid, Spain. He would study engineering at Madrid's School of Arts and Sciences at an early age. From 1904 to 1905 he studied painting with José Moreno Carbonero. In 1906 he moved to Paris, where he befriended many future Cubism members including Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso. In 1910 he gave up on attempting to be a satirical cartoonist, instead developing a Cubist style. In 1916 and 1917 he used very simple geometric structure: and in 1920 critics began to write conspicuously about this 'synthetic' approach and it's importance to Cubism. Gris died of renal failure, in 1925, while dealing with cardiac problems and bouts of uremia in Paris, at the age of 40.
Brief Biography Artist 3
Major events:

Congress ratifies the Eighteenth Amendment, prohibiting the sale of alcohol anywhere in the United States.
Political leader:
Warren G. Harding
Brody Gee
Brody Gee
Brody Gee
Brody Gee
Origin: Germany
a 19th-century art movement characterized by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Major events:

Britain pays US $15½m for damages during Civil War

Political leaders:

James Garfield
What is Impressionism?
1872 to 1892
Origin: Paris
Brief Biography Artist 1
Alfred Sisley (30 October 1839 – 29 January 1899) was an Impressionist landscape painter who was born and spent most of his life in France, but retained British citizenship. He was the most consistent of the Impressionists in his dedication to painting landscape en plein air (i.e., outdoors). He deviated into figure painting only rarely and, unlike Renoir and Pissarro, found that Impressionism fulfilled his artistic needs. Among his important works are a series of paintings of the River Thames, mostly around Hampton Court, executed in 1874, and landscapes depicting places in or near Moret-sur-Loing. The notable paintings of the Seine and its bridges in the former suburbs of Paris are like many of his landscapes, characterized by tranquillity, in pale shades of green, pink, purple, dusty blue and cream. Over the years Sisley's power of expression and colour intensity increased.
Brief Biography Artist 2
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, commonly known as Auguste Renoir (25 February 1841 – 3 December 1919), was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to Watteau." He was the father of actor Pierre Renoir (1885–1952), filmmaker Jean Renoir (1894–1979) and ceramic artist Claude Renoir (1901–1969). He was the grandfather of the filmmaker Claude Renoir (1913–1993), son of Pierre. Renoir was inspired by the style and subject matter of previous modern painters Camille Pissarro and Edouard Manet. After a series of rejections by the Salon juries, he joined forces with Monet, Sisley, Pissarro, and several other artists to mount the first Impressionist exhibition in April 1874, in which Renoir displayed six paintings. Although the critical response to the exhibition was largely unfavorable, Renoir's work was comparatively well received. That same year, two of his works were shown with Durand-Ruel in London. Hoping to secure a livelihood by attracting portrait commissions, Renoir displayed mostly portraits at the second Impressionist exhibition in 1876. He contributed a more diverse range of paintings the next year when the group presented its third exhibition; they included Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette and The Swing. Renoir did not exhibit in the fourth or fifth Impressionist exhibitions, and instead resumed submitting his works to the Salon. By the end of the 1870s, particularly after the success of his painting Mme Charpentier and her Children (1878) at the Salon of 1879, Renoir was a successful and fashionable painter.
Delaney O'Donnell
What is Expressionism?
a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.
Major Events:
The Ford Model F is an automobile produced by the Ford Motor Company & Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity is born and formulates famous equation E=mc^2


1905 to 1933

Political Leader:
Helmut Kohl
Origin: Germany
Brief Biography Artist 1
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (4 December (16 December by the Gregorian calendar) 1866 – 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting one of the first purely abstract works. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa, where he graduated at Grekov Odessa Art school. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics. Successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship (chair of Roman Law) at the University of Dorpat—Kandinsky began painting studies (life-drawing, sketching and anatomy) at the age of 30. In 1896 Kandinsky settled in Munich, studying first at Anton Ažbe's private school and then at the Academy of Fine Arts. He returned to Moscow in 1914, after the outbreak of World War I. Kandinsky was unsympathetic to the official theories on art in Communist Moscow, and returned to Germany in 1921. There, he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture from 1922 until the Nazis closed it in 1933. He then moved to France, where he lived for the rest of his life, becoming a French citizen in 1939 and producing some of his most prominent art. He died at Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1944. His grandson was musicology professor and writer Aleksey Ivanovich Kandinsky (1918–2000), whose career was both focused on and centered in Russia. Kandinsky's paintings from this period are large, expressive coloured masses evaluated independently from forms and lines; these serve no longer to delimit them, but overlap freely to form paintings of extraordinary force. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Kandinsky sometimes used musical terms to identify his works; he called his most spontaneous paintings "improvisations" and described more elaborate works as "compositions."
Biography Artist 2
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (6 May 1880 – 15 June 1938) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th-century art. Kirchner continued to work through 1919 and 1920 as his health also rapidly improved. His reputation grew with several exhibitions in Germany and Switzerland in 1920. He was provided with many subjects to paint as he came to know the farmers of the area, who were amazed by Kirchner's gramophone. Kirchner writes of the people of Davos: "The people who live here are proud. The hard work, which is done with great love, the way they treat animals (you very seldom see an animal being mishandled) entitle them to be proud. In most cases, work here has reached the ideal standard of being done with love. You can see it in the movements of their hands. And that, in turn, ennobles the facial expression and imbues all personal contacts with a great delicacy. This is a country in which democracy has become reality. Here a man’s word still counts, and you need have no fears about sleeping with your doors open. I am so happy to be allowed to be here, and through hard work I should like to thank the people for the kindness they have shown me". Kirchner began writing critiques of his own art under the pseudonym of Louis de Marsalle in order to control public opinion of him and free himself of dependence upon the art critics of the day. In 1921, there was a major display of Kirchner's work in Berlin; the reviews were favourable. Kirchner's father died on the 14 February] Kirchner visited Zurich at the beginning of May and met the dancer, Nina Hard, whom he invited back to Frauenkirch (despite Erna's objections). Nina Hard would become an important model for Kirchner and would be featured in many of his works] Kirchner began creating designs for carpets which were then woven by Lise Gujer. He volunteered for army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. In 1933, his work was branded as "degenerate" by the Nazis and in 1937, over 600 of his works were sold or destroyed. In 1938, he committed suicide by gunshot.
Delaney O'Donnell
Major Events:
The 18th Amendment is passed & Germany Allies End World War I
1980s through present
A movement that can be traced back to New York in the 1970's. It was named after the spray-can vandalism common in most cities in the world but most associated with the New York subway system.

Richard Nixon, US President

In 1974 Richard Nixon resigned from office becoming the first US president to resign from office. The Vietnam War was started in early 1979.
What is Graffiti?
Political Leader
Poltical Leader:

Woodrow Wilson
Brief Biography Artist 2
Brief Biography Artist 1
Delaney O'Donnell

Paul Klee (18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940) was a Swiss-German artist. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included Expressionism, Cubism, and Surrealism. Klee was a natural draftsman who experimented with and eventually deeply explored color theory, writing about it extensively; his lectures Writings on Form and Design Theory (Schriften zur Form und Gestaltungslehre), published in English as the Paul Klee Notebooks, are held to be as important for modern art as Leonardo da Vinci's A Treatise on Painting for the Renaissance. He and his colleague, Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, both taught at the Bauhaus school of art, design and architecture. His works reflect his dry humor and his sometimes childlike perspective, his personal moods and beliefs, and his musicality. In January 1911 Alfred Kubin met Klee in Munich and encouraged him to illustrate Voltaire's Candide. Around this time, Klee's graphic work increased. His early inclination towards the absurd and the sarcastic was well received by Kubin, who befriended Klee and became one of his first significant collectors. Klee met, through Kubin, the art critic Wilhelm Hausenstein in 1911. Klee was a foundation member and manager of the Munich artists' union Sema that summer. In autumn he made an acquaintance with August Macke and Wassily Kandinsky, and in winter he joined the editorial team of the almanac Der Blaue Reiter, founded by Franz Marc and Kandinsky. On meeting Kandinsky, Klee recorded, "I came to feel a deep trust in him. He is somebody, and has an exceptionally beautiful and lucid mind." Other members included Macke, Gabriele Münter and Marianne von Werefkin. Klee became in a few months one of the most important and independent members of the Blaue Reiter, but he was not yet fully integrated. The release of the almanac was delayed for the benefit of an exhibition. The first Blaue Reiter exhibition took place from 18 December 1911 to 1 January 1912 in the Moderne Galerie Heinrich Thannhauser in Munich. Klee did not attend it, but in the second exhibition, which occurred from 12 February to 18 March 1912 in the Galerie Goltz, 17 of his graphic works were shown. The name of this art exhibition was Schwarz-Weiß, as it only regarded graphic painting. Initially planned to be released in 1911, the release date of the Der Blau Reiter almanac by Kandinsky and Marc was delayed in May 1912, including the reproduced ink drawing Steinhauer by Klee. At the same time, Kandinsky published his art history writing Über das Geistige in der Kunst.
Brief Biography Artist 1

László Moholy-Nagy (July 20, 1895 – November 24, 1946) was a Hungarian painter and photographer as well as a professor in the Bauhaus school. He was highly influenced by constructivism and a strong advocate of the integration of technology and industry into the arts. Perhaps his most enduring achievement is the construction of the "Lichtrequisit einer elektrischen Bühne" [Light Prop for an Electric Stage] (completed 1930), a device with moving parts meant to have light projected through it in order to create mobile light reflections and shadows on nearby surfaces. Made with the help of the Hungarian architect Istvan Seboek for the German Werkbund exhibition held in Paris during the summer of 1930, it is often interpreted as a kinetic sculpture. After his death, it was dubbed the "Light-Space Modulator" and was seen as a pioneer achievement of kinetic sculpture. It might more accurately be seen as one of the earliest examples of Light Art. Moholy-Nagy was photography editor of the Dutch avant-garde magazine International Revue i 10 from 1927 to 1929. He resigned from the Bauhaus early in 1928 and worked free-lance as a highly sought-after designer in Berlin. He designed stage sets for successful and controversial operatic and theatrical productions, designed exhibitions and books, created ad campaigns, wrote articles and made films. His studio employed artists and designers such as Istvan Seboek, Gyorgy Kepes and Andor Weininger. After the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933, and, as a foreign citizen, he was no longer allowed to work, he operated for a time in the Netherlands (doing mostly commercial work) before moving to London in 1935. In England, Moholy-Nagy formed part of the circle of émigré artists and intellectuals who based themselves in Hampstead. Moholy-Nagy lived for a time in the Isokon building with Walter Gropius for eight months and then settled in Golders Green. Gropius and Moholy-Nagy planned to establish an English version of the Bauhaus but could not secure backing, and then Moholy-Nagy was turned down for a teaching job at the Royal College of Art. Moholy-Nagy made his way in London by taking on various design jobs including Imperial Airways and a shop display for men's underwear. He photographed contemporary architecture for the Architectural Review where the assistant editor was John Betjeman who commissioned Moholy-Nagy to make documentary photographs to illustrate his book An Oxford University Chest. In 1936, he was commissioned by fellow Hungarian film producer Alexander Korda to design special effects for Things to Come. Working at Denham Studios, Moholy-Nagy created kinetic sculptures and abstract light effects, but they were rejected by the film's director. At the invitation of Leslie Martin, he gave a lecture to the architecture school of Hull School of Art.
Brief Biography Artist 2
Early 1920s through present

Origin: United States
What is Precionism?
Influenced strongly by Cubism and Futurism, its main themes included industrialization and the modernization of the American landscape, which were depicted in precise, sharply defined, geometrical forms.
Major Events:
Women granted the right to vote in U.S. & World War 1 had just ended

Political Leaders:
Woodrow Wilson, US President at the Time.
Brief Biography Artist 1
Charles Sheeler (July 16, 1883 – May 7, 1965) was an American painter and commercial photographer. He is recognized as one of the founders of American modernism and one of the master photographers of the 20th century. Charles Rettrew Sheeler Jr. was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, attending the Pennsylvania Museum School of Industrial Art, now the University of the Arts (Philadelphia), from 1900 to 1903, and then the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, where he studied under William Merritt Chase. He found early success as a painter and exhibited at the Macbeth Gallery in 1908.[1] Most of his education was drawing and other applied arts. He went to Italy with other students. Where he was intrigued by the Italian painters of the Middle Ages such as Giotto and Piero della Francesca. Later he was inspired by works of Cubist artists like Picasso and Braque[2] In 1909, he went to Paris, just when the popularity of Cubism was skyrocketing as he was inspired by works of Cubist artists like Picasso and Braque.Returning to the United States, he realized that he would not be able to make a living with Modernist painting. Instead, he took up commercial photography, focusing particularly on architectural subjects. He was a self-taught photographer, learning his trade on a five dollar Brownie. When starting out, he was dramatically impacted by the death of his close friend named Schamberg who paints great machine paintings that portrays technology in a great light.[3] He became to admire the technology. His first use of technology was photography in order to support himself as a painter, making him self-taught in the medium. His work made him prominent in describing human progress with modern technology iconic.
Brief Biography Artist 2
Charles Henry Buckius Demuth (November 8, 1883 – October 23, 1935) was an American watercolorist who turned to oils late in his career, developing a style of painting known as Precisionism. "Search the history of American art," wrote Ken Johnson in The New York Times, "and you will discover few watercolors more beautiful than those of Charles Demuth. Combining exacting botanical observation and loosely Cubist abstraction, his watercolors of flowers, fruit and vegetables have a magical liveliness and an almost shocking sensuousness." Demuth was a lifelong resident of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The home he shared with his mother is now the Demuth Museum, which showcases his work. He graduated from Franklin & Marshall Academy before studying at Drexel University and at Philadelphia's Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts. While he was a student at PAFA, he participated in a show at the Academy, and also met William Carlos Williams at his boarding house. The two were fast friends and remained close for the rest of their lives. He later studied at Académie Colarossi and Académie Julian in Paris, where he became a part of the avant garde art scene. The Parisian artistic community was accepting of Demuth's homosexuality. After his return to America, Demuth retained aspects of Cubism in many of his works.
Delaney O'Donnell
Delaney O'Donnell
Political leader:

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Major events:
WW2 ends in 1845, Vietnam war begins.
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve international influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role formerly filled by Paris. Although the term abstract expressionism was first applied to American art in 1946 by the art critic Robert Coates, it had been first used in Germany in 1919 in the magazine Der Sturm, regarding German Expressionism. In the United States, Alfred Barr was the first to use this term in 1929 in relation to works by Wassily Kandinsky
What is Abstract Expressionism?
1943 to late 1965
2 Major Events
Origin: United States
Brief Biography Artist 1
Paul Jackson Pollock (January 28, 1912 – August 11, 1956), known professionally as Jackson Pollock, was an American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. He was well known for his unique style of drip painting. During his lifetime, Pollock enjoyed considerable fame and notoriety; he was a major artist of his generation. Regarded as reclusive, he had a volatile personality, and struggled with alcoholism for most of his life. In 1945, he married the artist Lee Krasner, who became an important influence on his career and on his legacy. Pollock died at the age of 44 in an alcohol-related single-car accident when he was driving. In December 1956, four months after his death, Pollock was given a memorial retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City. A larger, more comprehensive exhibition of his work was held there in 1967. In 1998 and 1999, his work was honored with large-scale retrospective exhibitions at MoMA and at The Tate in London. Pollock was introduced to the use of liquid paint in 1936 at an experimental workshop in New York City by the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros. He later used paint pouring as one of several techniques on canvases of the early 1940s, such as Male and Female and Composition with Pouring I. After his move to Springs, he began painting with his canvases laid out on the studio floor, and he developed what was later called his "drip" technique. He started using synthetic resin-based paints called alkyd enamels, which, at that time, was a novel medium. Pollock described this use of household paints, instead of artist’s paints, as "a natural growth out of a need". He used hardened brushes, sticks, and even basting syringes as paint applicators. Pollock's technique of pouring and dripping paint is thought to be one of the origins of the term action painting. With this technique, Pollock was able to achieve a more immediate means of creating art, the paint now literally flowing from his chosen tool onto the canvas. By defying the convention of painting on an upright surface, he added a new dimension by being able to view and apply paint to his canvases from all directions. A possible influence on Pollock was the work of the Ukrainian American artist Janet Sobel (1894–1968) (born Jennie Lechovsky). Peggy Guggenheim included Sobel's work in her The Art of This Century Gallery in 1945. With Jackson Pollock, the critic Clement Greenberg saw Sobel's work there in 1946. In his essay "American-Type Painting," Greenberg noted those works were the first of all-over painting he had seen, and said, "Pollock admitted that these pictures had made an impression on him". While painting this way, Pollock moved away from figurative representation, and challenged the Western tradition of using easel and brush. He used the force of his whole body to paint, which was expressed on the large canvases. In 1956, Time magazine dubbed Pollock "Jack the Dripper", due to his painting style.
Brief Biography Artist 1
Brief Biography Artist 2
Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was a Dutch-American abstract expressionist artist who was born in Rotterdam, Netherlands, and moved to New York in 1927. In the post-World War II era, de Kooning painted in a style that came to be referred to as Abstract expressionism or "action painting", and was part of a group of artists that came to be known as the New York School. Other painters in this group included Jackson Pollock, Elaine de Kooning, Lee Krasner, Franz Kline, Arshile Gorky, Mark Rothko, Hans Hofmann, Adolph Gottlieb, Anne Ryan, Robert Motherwell, Philip Guston, Clyfford Still, and Richard Pousette-Dart. De Kooning’s well-known Woman series, begun in 1950 (after meeting his future wife) and culminating in Woman VI, owes much to Picasso, not least in the aggressive, penetrative breaking apart of the figure, and the spaces around it. Picasso’s late works show signs that he, in turn, saw images of works by Pollock and de Kooning. De Kooning led the 1950s art world into a new movement known as American abstract expressionism. “From 1940 to the present, Woman has manifested herself in de Kooning’s paintings and drawings as at once the focus of desire, frustration, inner conflict, pleasure, … and as posing problems of conception and handling as demanding as those of an engineer.” The female figure is an important symbol for de Kooning’s art career and his own life. The Woman painting is considered as a significant work of art for the museum through its historical context about the post-World War II history and American feminist movement. Additionally, the medium (oil, enamel, and charcoal on canvas) of this painting makes it different from others of de Kooning’s time.
Banksy is an England-based graffiti artist, political activist and film director of unverified identity. His satirical street art and subversive epigrams combine dark humour with graffiti executed in a distinctive stenciling technique. His works of political and social commentary have been featured on streets, walls, and bridges of cities throughout the world. Banksy says that he was inspired by "3D", a graffiti artist who later became a founding member of the English musical group Massive Attack. Banksy displays his art on publicly visible surfaces such as walls and self-built physical prop pieces. Banksy does not sell photographs or reproductions of his street graffiti. One piece he did is a person in a mask from Brick Lane, East End completed in 2004. Banksy works with spray paint on all of his street work. Because Banksy is an unknown person, not much is known about him.
Brief Artist Biography 2
Delaney O'Donnell
Jean-Michel Basquiat (December 22, 1960 – August 12, 1988) was an American artist Born in Brooklyn to a Haitian father and Puerto Rican mother, Basquiat first achieved notoriety as part of SAMO©, an informal graffiti duo who wrote enigmatic epigrams in the cultural hotbed of the Lower East Side of Manhattan during the late 1970s where the hip hop, post-punk, and street art movements had coalesced. By the 1980s, he was exhibiting his neo-expressionist paintings in galleries and museums internationally. The Whitney Museum of American Art held a retrospective of his art in 1992. Basquiat's art focused on "suggestive dichotomies", such as wealth versus poverty, integration versus segregation, and inner versus outer experience. He appropriated poetry, drawing, and painting, and married text and image, abstraction, figuration, and historical information mixed with contemporary critique. Basquiat used social commentary in his paintings as a "springboard to deeper truths about the individual", as well as attacks on power structures and systems of racism, while his poetics were acutely political and direct in their criticism of colonialism and support for class struggle. He died of a heroin overdose at his art studio at age 27.
Mid 1950’s to early 1970s
Origin: United States
What is
Pop art?
"Scull" (1981)
an art movement that emerged in the mid-1950s in Britain and the late 1950s in the United States. Among the early artists that shaped the pop art movement were Eduardo Paolozzi and Richard Hamilton in Britain, and Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns in the United States.
Brief Artist Biography 3
Brief Artist Biography 4
Zephyr (Andrew Witten) is a legendary New York City graffiti artist who emerged from the Bandshell scene of the 1970s. He is one of the graffiti writers who helped jumpstart the freight train graffiti movement, and is often credited as the inventor of numerous graffiti styles still widely used today. Zephyr began his street art career in 1977 by writing his tag on freight trains and subway cars, which is the main reason why much of his earliest work is now forever lost. He quickly rose to prominence and was part of the first wave of graffiti artists to make commercial success and transition to galleries. Today, 54-year-old Zephyr is considered a graffiti elder, but cannot resist the urge and often tags his name on walls around the city.
Major Events:

President Truman approves
Hydrogen bomb construction
& Korean War starts.
Political Leader:
Harry S. Truman
Brief Biography Artist 1
Daze, also known as Chris Ellis, belongs to the renowned group of New York graffiti artists, including Lee Quinones and Jean-Michel Basquiat, that broke out of the South Bronx in the 1970s. Even though Daze received his education at the respected New York High School of Art and Design, he has earned his degree in the streets and subways of New York City, and ‘majored in exterior graphic design’ by painting pieces and drawing tags on subway trains and walls in Brooklyn and the Bronx. Just like many other great street artists, Daze also turned to paint on canvases in the early 1980s and very quickly started exhibiting his works in galleries across the globe. Today he is a must-know artist, and if this was even a shorter list, Daze would still be on it.
Brief Biography Artist 2
Roy Fox Lichtenstein (October 27, 1923 – September 29, 1997) was an American pop artist. During the 1960s, along with Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns, and James Rosenquist among others, he became a leading figure in the new art movement. His work defined the premise of pop art through parody. Inspired by the comic strip, Lichtenstein produced precise compositions that documented while they parodied, often in a tongue-in-cheek manner. His work was influenced by popular advertising and the comic book style. He described pop art as "not 'American' painting but actually industrial painting". His paintings were exhibited at the Leo Castelli Gallery in New York City. Whaam! and Drowning Girl are generally regarded as Lichtenstein's most famous works, with Oh, Jeff...I Love You, Too...But... arguably third. Drowning Girl, Whaam! and Look Mickey are regarded as his most influential works. Woman with Flowered Hat has held the record for highest Lichtenstein auction price since May 15, 2013 although that was recently beaten in 2015 by Nurse. It was at this time that Lichtenstein began to find fame not just in America but worldwide. He moved back to New York to be at the center of the art scene and resigned from Rutgers University in 1964 to concentrate on his painting.[26] Lichtenstein used oil and Magna (early acrylic) paint in his best known works, such as Drowning Girl (1963), which was appropriated from the lead story in DC Comics' Secret Hearts #83. (Drowning Girl now hangs in the Museum of Modern Art, New York.) Drowning Girl also features thick outlines, bold colors and Ben-Day dots, as if created by photographic reproduction. Of his own work Lichtenstein would say that the Abstract Expressionists "put things down on the canvas and responded to what they had done, to the color positions and sizes. My style looks completely different, but the nature of putting down lines pretty much is the same; mine just don't come out looking calligraphic, like Pollock's or Kline's."
Andy Warhol (/ˈwɔːrhɒl/;[1] born Andrew Warhola; August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987) was an American artist who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture, and advertising that flourished by the 1960s. After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warhol became a renowned and sometimes controversial artist. His art used many types of media, including hand drawing, painting, printmaking, photography, silk screening, sculpture, film, and music. His studio, The Factory, was a well known gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, playwrights, Bohemian street people, Hollywood celebrities, and wealthy patrons. He managed and produced The Velvet Underground, a rock band which had a strong influence on the evolution of punk rock music. He founded Interview magazine and was the author of numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Warhol and Popism: The Warhol Sixties. He is also notable as a gay man who lived openly as such before the gay liberation movement, and he is credited with coining the widely used expression "15 minutes of fame." Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions, books, and feature and documentary films. The Andy Warhol Museum in his native city, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, which holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives, is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Many of his creations are very collectible and highly valuable. The highest price ever paid for a Warhol painting is US$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled "Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster)"; his works include some of the most expensive paintings ever sold. A 2009 article in The Economist described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market"
Benjamin Lorber
Mid 1960’s through
mid 1970’s
Early 1960s through present
What is
Hyper-Realism?
Origin:United Stated

Major Events:

Civil Rights Movement & John F. Kennedy assassinated
1960's-Present
Political Leader:
Dwight E. Eisenhower
A genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high-resolution photograph. It is considered an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures. Hyperrealism has roots only as far back as the late 1960s to early 1970s. United States and Europe that has developed since the early 1970s

Political Leader:
Richard Nixon was president of the United States.

2 Important Events:
In 1974 Richard Nixon resigned from office becoming the first president to resign from office. Apollo 15 lands on the moon and uses the Lunar Rover vehicle for the first time.
Origin: United States
Brief Biography Artist 1
Don Eddy (born November 4, 1944) is an American painter who gained initial fame as a photorealist; but his recent works have veered into the realm of metaphysics. In the 1970s, Eddy's works paid homage to cars and the urban cityscape. In the 1980s, his work was more object oriented—depicting glassware, silverware, and toys on a reflective series of glass shelves. Often composed of diptychs or polyptychs, he juxtaposes images in poetic relationship to one another—"echoing ecosystems," as the artist calls these connections of structure. Eddy was born in California. He is known for exploring the nature and concept of reality and visual perception. He utilizes the airbrush painting and thousands of dots of color. Instead of only using a single photograph, Don Eddy gathers over 40 images to ensure that he has the sharpest and most clear image possible. He currently lives in New York. Don Eddy received his Bachelor of Fine Arts in 1967 and Master of Fine Arts 1969 from the University of Hawaii that is located in Honolulu.
What is Minimalism?
Minimalism began sometime in the eary 1960's. Many of the artist who joined this movement believed that recent art had become stale and academic, so the artist favored the "cool" over the "dramatic". By the end of the 1970's Minimalism prospered in America and Europe, a movement called Post-Minimalism formed at the same time, leaving many to question the importance of the movement.
Major events:
Vietnam war, civil rights movements
Brief Biography Artist 3
Political Leaders:
John F. Kennedy
Brief Biography Artist 1
Joseph Kosuth (born January 31, 1945) is an American conceptual artist. He lives in New York and London, after residing in various cities in Europe, including Ghent, Rome, and Berlin. Kosuth belongs to a broadly international generation of conceptual artists that began to emerge in the mid-1960s, stripping art of personal emotion, reducing it to nearly pure information or idea and greatly playing down the art object. Along with Lawrence Weiner, On Kawara, Hanne Darboven and others, Kosuth gives special prominence to language. His art generally strives to explore the nature of art rather than producing what is traditionally called "art". Kosuth's works are frequently self-referential. He remarked in 1969: "The 'value' of particular artists after Duchamp can be weighed according to how much they questioned the nature of art." Kosuth's works frequently reference Sigmund Freud's psycho-analysis and Ludwig Wittgenstein's philosophy of language. His first conceptual work Leaning Glass, consisted of an object, a photograph of it and dictionary definitions of the words denoting it. In 1966 Kosuth also embarked upon a series of works entitled Art as Idea as Idea, involving texts, through which he probed the condition of art. The works in this series took the form of photostat reproductions of dictionary definitions of words such as "water", "meaning", and "idea". Accompanying these photographic images are certificates of documentation and ownership (not for display) indicating that the works can be made and remade for exhibition purposes.


Brief Biography Artist 1
Delaney O'Donnell
Delaney O'Donnell
Nestor Leynes was born in February 26, 1922 in Santa Cruz, Manila. Leynes' parents owned several paintings, including some by the Filipino master painter Fabián Cueto de la Rosa, a distant relative of the family. Probably influenced by his environment, Leynes already expressed the desire to be an artist from a young age. His parents discouraged this ambition, fearing a life of hardship for him. Nevertheless, Leynes was already taking art lessons in grade school and high school. He graduated from the Arellano High School and entered the College of Fine Arts of the University of the Philippines. His studies were cut short in his fourth year by the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in World War II. Two days after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, he married Amalia Alcantara, a childhood neighbor and sweetheart. Being already married, Leynes never returned to school after the war and thus never graduated. He found work as an illustrator for Ramon Roces Publications. He created illustrations for magazines like Liwayway and Philippine comics. He was hired as a staff artist for the Philippine Advertising Counsel. Later on, he became the executive vice president for the art department of the J. Romero and Associates Advertising Agency. Leynes resumed painting full-time after retiring in 1980 at the age of fifty eight. He died in March 2016 at the age of 94.
Brief Biography Artist 2
Kenneth Noland was an American Color Field, Abstract Expressionist, and Minimalist painter born in 1924. Noland was born in Ashville, North Carolina and lived there with his mother, father, and four siblings. After graduating from high school he enlisted into the U.S. Air Force in 1942. Noland took advantage of being a veteran of World War Two and used the G.I. Bill to study at Black Mountain Collage. In 1948 and 1949 he went to Paris to work with Ossip Zankine in Paris, where he would have his first exhibition of his paintings. Most of Noland's work is one of four shapes: circles, strips, shaped canvases, and chevrons. In 2010 Noland died of kidney cancer in his home in Port Clyde Maine.
Brief Biography Artist 2
Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp (28 July 1887 – 2 October 1968) was a French, naturalized American painter, sculptor, chess player and writer whose work is associated with Cubism, conceptual art and Dada, although he was careful about his use of the term Dada and was not directly associated with Dada groups. Duchamp is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse, as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. Duchamp has had an immense impact on twentieth-century and twenty first-century art. By World War I, he had rejected the work of many of his fellow artists (like Henri Matisse) as "retinal" art, intended only to please the eye. Instead, Duchamp wanted to put art back in the service of the mind. Duchamp's first work to provoke significant controversy was Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2 (Nu descendant un escalier n° 2) (1912). The painting depicts the mechanistic motion of a nude, with superimposed facets, similar to motion pictures. It shows elements of both the fragmentation and synthesis of the Cubists, and the movement and dynamism of the Futurists. He first submitted the piece to appear at the Cubist Salon des Indépendants, but Albert Gleizes (according to Duchamp in an interview with Pierre Cabanne, p. 31) asked Duchamp's brothers to have him voluntarily withdraw the painting, or to paint over the title that he had painted on the work and rename it something else. Duchamp's brothers did approach him with Gleizes' request, but Duchamp quietly refused. However, there was no jury at the Salon des Indépendants and Gleizes was in no position to reject the painting. The controversy, according to art historian Peter Brooke, was not whether the work should be hung or not, but whether or not it should be hung with the Cubist group. Of the incident Duchamp later recalled, "I said nothing to my brothers. But I went immediately to the show and took my painting home in a taxi. It was really a turning point in my life, I can assure you. I saw that I would not be very much interested in groups after that." Yet Duchamp did appear in the illustrations to Du "Cubisme", he participated in the La Maison Cubiste (Cubist House), organized by the designer André Mare for the Salon d'Automne of 1912.
Duyan ('Cradle') showing Leynes' favorite subjects - the mother and child.
Beginning
Manga on canvas
Hirshhorn Museum
and Sculpture Garden
Shoot
Acrylic on canvas
Smithsonian American Art Museum
Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on January 9, 1944, to parents who immigrated from Slovakia, Ian Hornak moved to Brooklyn, New York at the age of 3 and then relocated with his family to Mount Clemens, Michigan at age 8. At age 9 he received a set of oil paints and a book of important Renaissance paintings from his mother as a gift and immediately began copying the works of Michelangelo Buonarroti, Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael Sanzio. During an interview with the 57th Street Review in 1976, Hornak remarked "I picked up my technique as a child through my interest in art and copying paintings I liked. I especially loved Renaissance painting, because it had clarity and simplification of form and great organization."."." Upon graduating from High School in New Haven, Hornak relocated to Detroit and attended the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and later received his BFA and MFA at Wayne State University where he taught for a short time. Hornak produced Hyperrealist and Photorealist artwork with surreal overtones in the midst of the pop art movement. He was introduced into the New York City art scene in 1968 by Pop Artist, Lowell Blair Nesbitt, with whom Hornak lived and worked until 1969. By 1971, he maintained his primary residence and studio in East Hampton, NY where he lived until his death in 2002, and a secondary penthouse studio in New York City at 116 East 73rd Street near the corner of Park Avenue. While living in East Hampton, Hornak came to work with and befriend art world figures, Robert Motherwell, Willem de Kooning, Robert Indiana, Andy Warhol, Claes Oldenburg and Fairfield Porter. Died - December 9, 2002 (aged 58) in Southampton, New York
Ian Hornak. Marcia Sewing, Variation III, acrylic on canvas, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1978
Brief Biography Artist 3
Dragan Malešević was born in Belgrade in 1949. In his early youth, he started painting as an autodidact. His painting career began when he was seven years old, in the lobby of the building located at 4 Hilandarska street in Belgrade. He copied the comic "Three Imps", which his father, a journalist, used to bring him from the "Politika" press, before the comic would appear in newsstands. Tickets for his first independent "exhibition", which took place at the entrance of his house building, cost five dinars for children and ten dinars for adults. In 1985 his works, together with the works of Mića Popović and Olja Ivanjicki, were shown in public, at a group exhibition in Rovinj, where he continued to exhibit his works for the next five years. The crucial moment for his painting career was the sale of some of his first paintings in the Prijeko Gallery in Dubrovnik in 1987. Tapi's first painting was sold to a German tourist for DM 8,000, although the artist at first asked 50,000 dollars for it. From that point forward, he aligned his life with his talent. After only two years, the magazine "Art News" would include him among the seven best hyperrealists in the world. In the 80s and 90s his paintings engrossed great media attention, and that was followed by numerous independent and group exhibitions across his homeland and abroad: United States, Cuba, Belgium, France, United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, Greece, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Russia, China, Japan… Tapi's paintings are in numerous private collections, like the ones of former president of the United States, George H.W. Bush and state secretary Henry Kissinger; departed Prime minister of Japan Kakuei Tanaka, and many other public figures across the world, but also in public collections, including the White House collection.[3] In 2000 the U.S. state of Georgia proclaimed Tapi an honorary citizen of Georgia. Unfortunately for the world of painting and admirers of fine arts, the sudden and early death of the artist in 2002 prevented him from exhibiting already arranged exhibitions in museums and galleries such as the Peggy Guggenheim Museum. He die October 22. 2002.
Brief Biography Artist 2
Frank Stella is an American painter and print maker born in 1936. Stella is most identified as being a Minimalist and Post-Painterly Abstraction, but has joined many movements over his life. He was born to Italian descent in Malden Massachusetts. After graduating high school, Stella attended Princeton University, majoring in history. After graduation, he moved to New York in 1958. His work soon emphasized the picture-as-object instead of the picture representing something. Around this time many of this paintings were simple, some even just being black or copper paint, it wouldn't be until the 1960's when Stella began to use a wider range of colors. Stella now currently lives in Greenwich Village and has a studio in Rock Tavern, New York with which he commutes with.
Brief Biography Artist 3
Brief Biography Artist 4
Richard William Hamilton CH (24 February 1922 – 13 September 2011) was an English painter and collage artist. His 1955 exhibition Man, Machine and Motion (Hatton Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne) and his 1956 collage Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing?, produced for the This Is Tomorrow exhibition of the Independent Group in London, are considered by critics and historians to be among the earliest works of pop art.A major retrospective of his work was at Tate Modern until May 2014. Hamilton's early work was much influenced by D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson's 1917 text On Growth and Form. In 1952, at the first Independent Group meeting, held at the ICA, Hamilton was introduced to Eduardo Paolozzi's seminal presentation of collages produced in the late 1940s and early 1950s that are now considered to be the first standard bearers of Pop Art. Also in 1952, he was introduced to the Green Box notes of Marcel Duchamp through Roland Penrose, whom Hamilton had met at the ICA. At the ICA, Hamilton was responsible for the design and installation of a number of exhibitions including one on James Joyce and The Wonder and the Horror of the Human Head that was curated by Penrose. It was also through Penrose that Hamilton met Victor Pasmore who gave him a teaching post based in Newcastle Upon Tyne which lasted until 1966. Among the students Hamilton tutored at Newcastle in this period were Rita Donagh, Mark Lancaster, Tim Head, Roxy Music founder Bryan Ferry and Ferry's visual collaborator Nicholas De Ville. Hamilton's influence can be found in the visual styling and approach of Roxy Music. He described Ferry as "his greatest creation". Ferry repaid the compliment, naming him in 2010 as the living person he most admired, saying "he greatly influenced my ways of seeing art and the world".
Thomas Arvid was born in Detroit, MI on March 24, 1964 where his aptitude for art led him to pursue a career in sign painting. In 1986, Arvid, who is self-taught, moved to Atlanta, GA to discover alternatives to the industrial work his hometown provided. Upon realizing that he could pursue fine art as a career, he began painting full-time after an inspirational backpacking trip through Europe in 1991. Having been drawn to the color red his whole life, Arvid pursued a study of the color by painting Campbell soup cans, Converse High-top tennis shoes, and eventually red wine. After beginning his study of red wine, Arvid discovered that his paintings were being purchased before they were finished and decided to follow an unexplored niche by pursuing wine as his subject matter. Arvid’s painting style is photorealistic and has been described as being “big and bold, with enough selected detail and softness to create a sense of balance…this blend of elements is precisely what winemakers hope to bring to their top vintages”. Of his subject matter, Arvid says, "Wine is a great subject because people are familiar with it; they connect to it. My paintings speak to the special moments that people share when they share wine." Arvid's work is currently represented by over 50 art galleries in the US, Canada, and Japan. Arvid’s work was also premiered in a solo exhibit at the Marietta/Cobb Museum of Art in 2012.
Harran II
Polymer and fluorescent
polymer paint on canvas
Guggenheim Museum
La scienza della pigrizia
Oil paint, enamel paint, alkyd paint on canvas. Etched magnesium, aluminum, and fiberglass
National Gallery of Art
Brody Gee
Benjamin Lorber
Brief Biography Artist 4
Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a French post-Impressionist artist. Underappreciated until after his death, Gauguin is now recognized for his experimental use of color and synthetist style that were distinctly different from Impressionism. His work was influential to the French avant-garde and many modern artists, such as Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse. Gauguin's art became popular after his death, partially from the efforts of art dealer Ambroise Vollard, who organized exhibitions of his work late in his career, as well as assisting in organizing two important posthumous exhibitions in Paris. Many of his paintings were in the possession of Russian collector Sergei Shchukin and other important collections. He was an important figure in the Symbolist movement as a painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramist, and writer. His bold experimentation with color led directly to the Synthetist style of modern art, while his expression of the inherent meaning of the subjects in his paintings, under the influence of the cloisonnist style, paved the way to Primitivism and the return to the pastoral. He was also an influential proponent of wood engraving and woodcuts as art forms.
Brief Biography Artist 3
Berthe Marie Pauline Morisot (January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was a painter and a member of the circle of painters in Paris who became known as the Impressionists. She was described by Gustave Geffroy in 1894 as one of "les trois grandes dames" of Impressionism alongside Marie Bracquemond and Mary Cassatt. In 1864, she exhibited for the first time in the highly esteemed Salon de Paris. Sponsored by the government, and judged by Academicians, the Salon was the official, annual exhibition of the Académie des beaux-arts in Paris. Her work was selected for exhibition in six subsequent Salons[2] until, in 1874, she joined the "rejected" Impressionists in the first of their own exhibitions, which included Paul Cézanne, Edgar Degas, Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, and Alfred Sisley. It was held at the studio of the photographer Nadar. She was married to Eugène Manet, the brother of her friend and colleague Édouard Manet.
Emil Nolde (7 August 1867 – 13 April 1956) was a German-Danish painter and printmaker. He was one of the first Expressionists, a member of Die Brücke, and is considered to be one of the great oil painting and watercolor painters of the 20th century. He is known for his vigorous brushwork and expressive choice of colors. Golden yellows and deep reds appear frequently in his work, giving a luminous quality to otherwise somber tones. His watercolors include vivid, brooding storm-scapes and brilliant florals. Nolde's intense preoccupation with the subject of flowers reflects his continuing interest in the art of Vincent van Gogh. Nolde's work is exhibited at major museums around the world, including Portrait of a Young Woman and a Child, Portrait of a Man (ca. 1926), and Portrait of a Young Girl (1913–1914) at the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia; and Prophet (1921) and Young Couple (1913) at the Museum of Modern Art, New York City. His most important print, The Prophet (1912), is an icon of 20th-century art. Among his most important oils are Lesende junge Frau (1906), Blumengarten (ohne Figur) (1908), and Blumen und Wolken (1933).
Nolde's work has become the focus of renewed attention after a painting entitled Blumengarten (Utenwarf) from 1917, which now hangs in the art museum Moderna Museet, Stockholm, Sweden and has been valued at US $4,000,000, was discovered to have been looted from Otto Nathan Deutsch, a German-Jewish refugee whose heirs, including a Holocaust survivor, are asking for its return. The Swedish government decided in 2007 that the museum must settle with the heirs. Deutsch was forced to flee Germany before World War II and left for Amsterdam in late 1938 or early 1939. The painting was sold to the Swedish museum at an auction in Switzerland, where it had resurfaced in 1967. Apart from paintings, Nolde's work includes many prints, often in color, and watercolor paintings of varied subjects: landscapes, religious images, flowers, stormy seas and scenes from Berlin nightlife. A famous series of paintings covers the German New Guinea Expedition, visiting the South Seas, Moscow, Siberia, Korea, Japan, and China. The Schiefler Catalogue raisonné of his prints describes 231 etchings, 197 woodcuts, 83 lithographs, and 4 hectographs.
Biography Artist 3
Lenore "Lee" Krassner (October 27, 1908 – June 19, 1984) was an American abstract expressionist painter in the second half of the 20th century. She is one of the few female artists to have had a retrospective show at the Museum of Modern Art. Krasner is identified as an abstract expressionist due to her abstract, gestural, and expressive works. She worked in painting, collage painting, charcoal drawing, and occasionally mosaics. She would often cut apart her own drawings and paintings to create her collage paintings. She also commonly revised or completely destroyed an entire series of works due to her critical nature. As a result, her surviving body of work is relatively small. Her catalogue raisonné, published in 1995 by Abrams, lists 599 known pieces. Her changeable nature is reflected throughout her work, which has led critics and scholars to have very different conclusions about her and her work. Her style often goes back and forth between classic structure and baroque action, open form and hard-edge shape, and bright color and monochrome palette. Throughout her career, she refused to adopt a singular, recognizable style and instead embraced change through varying the mood, subject matter, texture, materials, and compositions of her work often. By changing her work style often, she differed from other abstract expressionists since many of them adopted unchanging identities and modes of depiction. Despite these intense variations, her works can typically be recognized through their gestural style, texture, rhythm, and depiction of organic imagery. Her interest in the self, nature, and modern life are themes which commonly surface in her works. Krasner is often reluctant to discuss the iconography of her work and instead emphasizes the importance of her biography since she claims her art is formed through her individual personality and her emotional state.
Biography Artist 4
Brief Biography Artist 3
Louis Lozowick (December 10, 1892 – September 9, 1973) was an American painter and printmaker. He was born in the Russian Empire (Ludvinovka, Ukraine), came to the United States in 1906, and died in New Jersey in 1973. He is recognized as an Art Deco and Precisionist artist, and mainly produced streamline, urban-inspired monochromatic lithographs in a career that spanned 50 years. Lozowick attended Kiev Art School from 1904-1906 before he immigrated to the USA, where he continued his studies at the National Academy of Design (New York) and Ohio State University. From 1919 to 1924 Lozowick lived and traveled throughout Europe, spending most of his time in Paris, Berlin and Moscow. In the mid-1920s he started making his first lithographs. By 1926, when he joined the editorial board of the left-wing journal, New Masses, he was well-versed in current artistic developments in Europe, such as Constructivism and de Stijl. These hard-edged, linear styles, evident in a lithograph called "New York (Brooklyn Bridge)," suggest the possibility of an efficient reframing of the world, as did the political theories espoused in New Masses. A version of this lithograph was planned as a cover for New Masses that was never published. Lozowick was highly interested in the development of the Russian avant-garde and even published a monograph on Russian Constructivism entitled Modern Russian Art. In 1943 Lozowick moved to New Jersey where he continued to paint and make prints. The human condition remained a constant theme of his art, and an ongoing interest in nature appears more frequently in his later works.
Brief Biography Artist 4
George Copeland Ault (October 11, 1891 – December 30, 1948) was an American painter. He was loosely grouped with the Precisionist movement and, though influenced by Cubism and Surrealism, his most lasting work is of a realist nature. Ault was born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA, into a wealthy family and spent his youth in London, England, where he studied at the Slade School of Art and St John's Wood School of Art. Returning to the United States in 1911, he spent the rest of his life in New York and New Jersey. His personal life henceforth was troubled. He became alcoholic during the 1920s, after the death of his mother in a mental institution. Each of his three brothers committed suicide, two after the loss of the family fortune in the 1929 stock market crash. Bright Light at Russell's Corners (1946) Although he had exhibited his works with some success, by the early 1930s his neurotic behavior and reclusiveness had alienated him from the gallery world. In 1937, Ault moved to Woodstock, New York with Louise Jonas, who would become his second wife, and tried to put his difficulties in the past. In Woodstock the couple lived a penurious existence in a small rented cottage that had no electricity or indoor plumbing. Depending on Louise for income, Ault created some of his finest paintings during this time, but had difficulty selling them. In 1948, Ault was discovered dead five days after drowning in the Sawkill Brook on December 30, when he had taken a solitary walk in stormy and dark weather. The death was deemed a suicide by the coroner. In his lifetime, his works were displayed at the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Addison Gallery of American Art (in Andover, Massachusetts), among others. Ault worked in oil, watercolor and pencil. He is often grouped with Precisionist painters such as Charles Sheeler and R
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