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Chapter 8: Nutrition Basics

Energy, Nutrients, and more. PET 3097
by

Jenna Montana

on 7 November 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 8: Nutrition Basics

Chapter 8 Macronutrients Micronutrients Now what? DRI & RDA Glycemic Index Reading Labels Carbohydrates Fats Protein Vitamins Minerals Nutrition Basics Water (recommendations and applications) Special Circumstances Women (Child Bearing Age)

Smokers

Vegetarians

Athletes

People over 50 Why do I need it? Nutrient:
A substance obtained from food that your body doesn't naturally produce a sufficient amount of, if at all. Macronutrients
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Fats Micronutrients
Vitamins
Minerals
Water Fat-Soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and fatty tissues
Water-Soluble vitamins are distributed through the bloodstream and excess is expelled through urine Major minerals are required by the body in larger doses, at least 100mg
Trace minerals are needed in lesser amounts but are still important Pills or Food? Nutrients that must be consumed in fairly large amounts
Provide calories
A calorie is defined as a measure of the energy in food as well as energy burned through physical activity
"Kilocalories"
the amount of energy used to raise temperature of 1 kilogram of water by 1 degree Celcius Primary energy source
largest proportion of calories in diet!
Everything you eat contains carbohydrates!
Provide 4 calories per gram Digestion
Broken down into glucose, which circulates in the blood as a readily available energy course for your cells
Any unused glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and skeletal muscles
Glycogen can be converted back into glucose when energy is needed
Limit to how much glycogen can be stored Excess consumption of carbohydrates can lead to weight gain and increased body fat Simple Carbohydrates
1 or 2 units of sugar per molecule
include glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose
occur naturally in fruits, honey, sweet potatoes, milk products, cereals Complex Carbohydrates
contain longer chains of sugar units
Starches and Fiber
Starches include grains such as wheat, oats, barley, rice; legumes (beans!) and vegetables
Most starches are broken down into simple sugars, which can then be used by the body
Starches such as legumes are resistant to digestion and don't break down completely, causing intestinal gas
Dietary fiber is also hard for the body to break down; remains largely intact through out the digestive tract Grains
edible seeds of certain types of grasses
Whole grains vs. Refined grains
Kernel of whole grain consists of:
Bran - outer protective covering, rich in fiber
Germ - inner part of seed from which a new plant can sprout
Endosperm - large center of the seed, contains complex carbohydrates
Refined Grain is stripped of it's germ and bran, leaving only the starchy endosperm.
Stripping of these 2 parts removes the majority of the nutrients from the grain
Refining process is used to create products like white flour and white rice Which is better?
Whole grains
Nutrient dense
Studies have shown that consuming whole-grain protects against CVD, type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, and weight gain.
Should consume whole grains at least half of the time when consuming carbohydrates Major structural component of all cells in the body
Necessary for repair and growth of muscle bone
Functions as enzymes and hormones, in cell membranes and blood, and as carriers of important molecules in the body
Provide 4 calories per gram
Not considered a primary energy source
Made up of amino acids
11 can be made by the body, 9 cannot Organic compounds made up of triglycerides, which contain 3 fatty-acid molecules and one glycerol molecule
Fatty acids are chains of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms attached to some of all of the carbon atoms
Chemical differences such as the length of the carbon chains, types of bonds between them, and number of hydrogen atoms attached to them determine the effects that different types of fats have on an individual's health
Predominant type of fatty acids determine the fat's characteristics
Saturated fats, trans fats, hydrogenated fats, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, omega fatty acids
Provide 9 calories per gram Saturated Fats
bonds between carbons atoms are all single bonds
every available bond from each carbon atom is attached to a hydrogen atom
fatty acid chain is "saturated" with hydrogen atoms
generally solid at room temperature
found in animal sources such as fatty meats, poultry, butter, cheese, high-fat dairy products and plant sources such as palm and coconut oils
Visible fats
Unhealthy! What's so bad about saturated fats?
When consumed, these fats act on your liver to increase the amount of LDL (low-density lipoproteins) in your blood.
High levels of LDL increases risk for CVD and stroke
Saturated fat is also associated with insulin resistance in cells, increasing risk for type 2 diabetes
Our bodies can make all the required saturated fats needed, so we don't need to consume any! Added sugars
Simple carbs added to foods
Provide calories with few other nutrients (empty calories)
High intake associated with elevated blood pressure, unhealthy cholesterol levels, poor vitamin and mineral intakes, weight gain
Top sources of added sugars include candy, cakes, regular soft drinks, alcohol, cookies, pies, fruit drinks, milk and grain desserts such as ice cream and sweet rolls Types of Carbohydrates Hydrogenated Fats
Hydrogenation
Hydrogen atoms are added to polyunsaturated fatty acids, turning some of them into saturated fatty acids
Hydrogenated fats (contain both trans fats and saturated fats) are used in food manufacturing to prolong shelf life of food, to fry foods, and to improve texture of certain baked goods
Usually solid or semisolid at room temperature
Hydrogenated vegetable oils are used to make margarine, shortening,other spreadable fats
During hydrogenation, only some of the carbon-carbon double bonds are converted to single bonds, resulting in "partially hydrogenated" oils.
Partial hydrogenation affects remaining double bonds on the carbon chains, resulting in a change of shape to a configuration called "trans"
Trans Fats
found in foods fried in hydrogenated oils such as french fries, doughnuts; baked goods such as cookies, cakes, pastries, pie crust, biscuits; margarine
small amounts can also be found in some meats and dairy products, although it is unclear whether or not these naturally found trans fats are detrimental to health
Raise LDL as well as lower HDL
Limit these! Unsaturated Fats
One or more of the available bonds on the carbon chain is not attached to a hydrogen atom
Neighboring carbon atoms form a double bond
Generally derived from plant sources, although there are some exceptions
Usually liquid at room temperature, oils
Monounsaturated fats
fatty acids with one double bond
Polyunsaturated fats
fatty acids with 2 or more double bonds
Omega Fatty Acids
"Omega" refers to the chemical structure of a certain polyunsaturated fat
Omega-3's
1st carbon-carbon double bond starts with the 3rd carbon from the end of the carbon chain
Found in fish such as salmon, mackerel, sardines, trout, tuna; plants such as flaxseed, walnuts, canola and soybean oils, dark green leafy vegetables
Alpha-linoleic acid (ALA) is an Omega-3 found in flaxseeds/flaxseed oil, walnuts/walnut oil, soybeans/soybean oil, and canola oil
Essential in the human diet for heart health
top source is in salad dressings
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are 2 Omega 3's found in fish
Reduce blood clots, decrease inflammation, normalize heart rhythms, and lower risk of development of or death from high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, and stroke
Salmon, herring, sardines, trout, tuna, mackerel, and anchovies are rich in these. You can also find small amounts in the plant sources named above
Omega-6's
1st double bond is at the 6th carbon from the end of the chain
Found in corn, soybean, vegetable oils; used in mayonnaise, salad dressing, margarine
Linoleic acid is an Omega-6 essential for the human diet and used in food oils such as safflower, sunflower, and corn oils
lack of this in diet can cause hair loss and poor wound healing Complete Proteins
Contain all of the essential amino acids
Found in meat, fish, poultry, soy products, eggs, dairy products, and certain grains such as quinoa and amaranth Incomplete Proteins
lack one or more of the essential amino acids
found in beans and certain vegetables, nuts, seeds, most grains
Can combine incomplete proteins that compliment each other A scale that quantifies the effect of carbohydrate-containing food on the level of glucose in the blood Fiber? Dietary Cholesterol A waxy substance in the cell walls of animal tissues
Found only in animal products such as egg yolks, dairy products, and meats
No dietary requirement for cholesterol, because your boy can manufacture all it needs (provided you take in the correct nutrients) Dietary vs. Blood Cholesterol
Blood cholesterol
produced in the liver
quarter or less comes from food
circulates through body, carried in packages called lipoproteins
Low-density Lipoproteins (LDL)
carries cholesterol from liver to the rest of the body
high levels can cause accumulation of cholesterol on walls of blood vessels (dangerous!)
VLDL
High-density Lipoproteins (HDL)
carries cholesterol from body back to liver, where it can be eliminated Phytosterols
plant-based compound that competes with dietary cholesterol for bodily absorption
similar in structure to cholesterol
reduce the amount of dietary cholesterol absorbed by the body (health benefit!)
Found naturally in plant foods, margarine spreads, salad dressings, and other foods
Phytosterol supplements may be recommended to people with high blood cholesterol or heart disease RDA (Recommended dietary allowance): Standard for dietary intake of nutrients set at a level to meet the needs of almost all humans (97-98%) in order to maintain good health DRI (Dietary Reference Intake): lowest amount of a nutrient needed to prevent a deficiency UL (Tolerable Upper Intake Level): Highest level of daily intake of a nutrient that poses no risk of adverse effects
(ie Vitamin A, fat soluble vitamins) AI (Adequate Intake): Rough estimate of nutrient value when not enough data to set an RDA
(ie: minerals, essential fatty acids) Glycemic Index versus Glycemic Load Load: emphasizes the amount of carbohydrates in a meal/food Index: measures the quickness of carbohydrates to be converted to glucose (blood sugar) To calculate the glycemic load of a food, take the GI in the form of a percent, and multiply it by the grams of carbohydrates in that same serving. ie; cooked carrots, GI 44 and 24g carbohydrate (0.44x24=10.6) Why care? The excess of glucose in the blood, means excess insulin. Insulin, being an anabolic chemical, causes the body to hold onto fat, and can lead to insulin resistance and ultimately, type II diabetes. Fiber: complex carbohydrates that cannot be broken down by digestive systems Two Types Soluble: Insoluble: soaks up water and turns into a gel during digestion; may improve insulin sensitivity and cholesterol levels binds to water and does not dissolve; adds bulk to the diet and improves elimination peas, oats, broccoli, carrots, psyllium husk whole grains, nuts and seeds, flax Increasing your daily intake Fact: The average American adult consumes about 15g of fiber per day The RDA for dietary fiber is 14g per 1,000 calories consumed Folic Acid Iron Iron, Zinc, Vitamin B12 Vitamin B12 Vitamin C When trying to meet your health goals with diet, the tools are in your hands. Daily Values (DVs): a set of nutrient-intake standards used on food labels that quantify the nutrients as percentages in a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet Ingredients are listed in descending order by weight Check the serving size, servings per container, and calories Label information is based on ONE serving
Calories are important, but what about invisible fats? getting the most nutrients in the least amount of calories Tips for nutrient density
Look for DVs higher than 20%
Except sodium, and unhealthy fats Nutrient Density Be a critical consumer.
Ask yourself: Does it contain hydrogenated fats?
Is a whole grain in the first few ingredients?
Is sugar in the first three ingredients?
Can I pronounce these ingredients? The history Canola Oil The Facts Conclusion 80% of our water intake comes from the fluids we consume
These fluids can range from fruit and veggie juices to milk to soda as well as actual water
Be wary of juices and sodas that are loaded with sugar and other additives
20% of our water intake comes from foods such as fruits and vegetables Do I really need to drink 8 glasses a day? Not exactly
On average Men will consume about 13 cups a day and Women will consume about 9 cups a day based on general thirst and drinking habits during meals. This also includes water that is found in foods
To tell if you you are getting enough water check to make sure you are hydrating during exercise, heat exposure, and drink when you are thirsty
On average you should also produce roughly 6-7 cups of slightly yellow urine per day Where can I get it? Daily Recommended Value? Aids in digestion and absorption of nutrients from foods
Main component of blood
Maintaining consistent body temperature
Cushions and lubricates the body and joints
Lost through urine, bowel movements, sweat, and breathing Required by the body in smaller amounts than Macronutrients but are still important
Found naturally in a variety of foods but through processing can me fortified
Pills can be taken to supplement intake
Are not a source of calories but aid in the process of extracting energy from Macronutrients Antioxidants are a phytochemical that protects cells from harmful molecules called free radicals Phytochemicals are found in plants and that may have an affect on health but are not classified as nutrients Pills aid in reaching daily recommended intake but leave out other important compounds Antioxidants can be found in all kinds of nutrient dense fruits and vegetables, whole grains, as well as red wine and dark chocolate Free radicals are highly unstable molecules created during metabolism and have been linked to assisting in the development of cancer, cardiovascular and other chronic diseases by altering the DNA and other components in cells Many Americans do not have a diet that fufills the requirements of Calcium, Vitamin D, or Phosphorus
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