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Jazz 3- MU 2
Transcript of Jazz 3- MU 2
What is jazz? How should it be defined? Louis Armstrong reportedly said, “If you gotta ask, you’ll never know.” Wynton Marsalis has said that to be jazz, music must have elements of blues and swing. According to the singer Carmen McRae, “Blues is to jazz what yeast is to bread—without it, it’s flat.” And yet, several of the musical selections in this lesson don’t contain characteristics of blues tonality or swing rhythm. Are they jazz? How would you define jazz? Do you know it when you hear it?
Why did bebop develop in Harlem, even though many bebop innovators were from the South and Southwest? What was unique about Harlem at that time? What musical characteristics and social backgrounds did the musicians bring from other parts of the country?
Is everything justifiable if the end is good?
What are the qualities or characteristics of jazz that make it a unique form of self-expression? Bebop, Cool, Modal, Free jazz- MU2 Bebop -The decline in popularity of swing bands and the rise of
singers as pop stars
-Many jazz musicians in the mid-1940s retreated to smaller
groups of five or six instruments
-Easier to organize, were cheaper to book in clubs, and provided more freedom for individual musicians to express themselves
-Unlike the smooth, pulsing flow of swing, these new melodies were typically jagged and uneven, designed to catch listeners off guard.
- Swing offer a lighthearted escape from the hardships of the Depression
- Bebop as a reflection of the anxiety and uncertainty faced by
African Americans in the immediate postwar years
- employment discrimination and poor educational
opportunities to increased racial conflict as the country
struggled toward greater equality. Harlem - Capital of bebop, mostly young blacks who had migrated to New York from the South and Southwest, drawn by the allure of Harlem’s celebrated African-American arts scene.
-They were virtuosos on their instruments, and they saw themselves not as talent hired to make dance music, but as true artists driven by their own aesthetic vision. By refusing to play the traditional role of smiling entertainer, they became forerunners of the civil rights struggle of the 1960s. The principal creators of bebop,
alto saxophonist Charlie Parker and
trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie. Cool Jazz- Ivy, Kyle, Tiffany, Yu Hin -Cool Jazz is simply called 'Hot Jazz' ,the idea
that it could also be "cool" went against the grain. A quintessential example of bebop, this tune highlights the brilliant musical partnership between Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie. Few, if any, horn players have ever played together so well at such fast tempos.
Gillespie explored the far reaches of harmony (and the upper reaches of his horn) and, wisely, taught his fellow musicians how to join him. References
http://goo.gl/2izxp People are waiting on line for food. Charlie Parker, might start a solo by playing in the lower register of his horn and then leap upward without warning. He also surprised listeners by where he chose not to play, breaking phrases with a pause at the least expected moments. This music showcased the rhythmic velocity and melodic inventiveness of Parker’s playing. Bebop- staggered phrasing, in combination with the irregular accents, thumps, and bass drum “bombs” of bop drummers, made dancing difficult. - Cuban and Puerto Rican dance music that was pouring out of New York City ballrooms following the wave of Latino immigration that had begun around 1930.
- 1940s, the Cuban mambo swept the country, “Manteca” Dizzy Gillespie and His Orchestra 1947
-Dizzy loved Afro-Cuban music and combined it best with jazz when collaborating with the Cuban percussionist Chano Pozo with whom he co-wrote this song. Both understood that jazz and Afro-Cuban music shared musical roots. Pozo explained, “Dizzy no speak Spanish, me no speak English. Both speak African. ” Latin influence on Bebop How is this music different from Swing? Introduction ~Developed in 1950s and 60s
~By Albert Ayler, Ornette Cleman and John Coltrane
~A Collective Improvisation
~dissatisfaction of the rules and limitations of the original jazz. For example, behop, hard bop and modal jazz Characteristic ~Use harsh overblowing technique
~ Not normal sound from the instrument
~Not really have any rules
~ Usually use 4/4
~ Accelrando and retard
~ May use element not from western country Modal Jazz Characteristics Free Jazz- Timothy, Jonathan, Angel Avant-garde jazz Miles Davis saxophonist
John Coltrane bassist
Paul Chambers alto saxophonist Cannonball Adderley pianists
Bill Evans and Wynton Kelly drummer : Jimmy Cobb ~Very similar to Free jazz
~ Free jazz is a branch of Avant-grade jazz -Miles Davis recorded the Birth of the Cool -John Lewis incorporated classical form, such as fugue in their music. Modal jazz is:
uses musical modes rather than chord progressions as a harmonic framework.
is generally refers to a type of scale, coupled with a set of characteristic melodic behaviors.
Concept of "mode":
in tonal harmonic music of the common practice period.
"mode" incorporates the idea of the diatonic scale, but differs from it by also involving an element of melody type. -Stan Kenton disbanded his innovated orchestra in California, many of their musician remained in California, while some of them joined Herman’s band. -Background: Following by the World War II, late 1940s Reference http://library.thinkquest.org/18602/history/cool/coolstart.html
http://goo.gl/2vKPW Albert Ayler - Ghosts Images Reference http://global.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/218271/free-jazz
http://dc4cor.files.wordpress.com/2011/12/the-sound-of-miles-davis.jpg Dave Burbeck Musical Characteristics
1. slow-moving harmonic rhythm, where single chords may last four to sixteen or more measures
2. pedal points and drones
3. absent or suppressed standard functional chord progressions
4. quartal harmonies or melodies.
Quartal harmony: quartal harmony is the building of harmonic structures with a distinct preference for the intervals of the perfect fourth, the augmented fourth and the diminished fourth. Musicians Dave Brubert
Woody Hermen -December 6, 1920 – December 5, 2012
-jazz pianist and composer-His music is known for employing unusual time signatures, and superimposing contrasting rhythms, meters, and tonalities.-Since Dave Brubeck’s mother was attempted to at classical training and improvisation skills, which led Brubeck refined to bombastic style. -long-time musical partner, alto saxophonist Paul Desmond
-His unique style music employed unusual time signature, superimposing contrasting rhythm, meters, and tonalities. Modal Jazz- Hector, Rachel, Jeremy, Theodore