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Continuum of Approaches

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Melissa Johns

on 28 September 2013

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Transcript of Continuum of Approaches

Continuum of Approaches
Gradual Release of Responsibility Model
From teacher centered
student directed
Teacher-Centered vs. Student Centered Classroom
Direct Instructional Approach
Teacher and Student Behaviors Compared
In the Classroom
Where does differentiation fit into this model?
Ahmad, S., Yang, A. (2012). Student-guided education is optimal, but only under the right conditions. Retrieved from

Bendry, A. Block, H. (2009, Jan. 24). Group projects [Cartoon]. Retrieved from

Burden, P. , Byrd, D. (2013). Methods for effective teaching: Meeting the needs of all students. (6th ed.), Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Citizens Academy Cleveland, (2001). Gradual release: Modeled-guided-independent practice. retrieved from http://

Fisher, D., Frey, N. (2008). Learning, or nor not learning in school. Better learning through structured teaching (Chapter 1). Retrieved from http://

Fisher, D., Frey N. (2008, November) Releasing gradually. Educational Leadership. Retrieved from

Levy, E. (2008). Gradual release of responsibility: I do, we do, you do. Retrieved from

Luddy, R. (randyluddy). (2007, Oct. 24). Direct instruction at thales academy—Raleigh, nc.[video file]. Retrieved from

University of Cambridge. (OER4Schools). (2012, Sept. 21). Teaching models: Inductive teaching. [video
file]. Retrieved from

Wilson, S., Peterson, P. (2006). Theories of learning and teaching—What do they mean for educators? Retrieved from
Team Presentation by
Jessica Allman, Melissa Johns , and Robin Kelley
EDCI 558

What It Is
'The gradual release of responsibility model of instruction suggests that the cognitive load should shift slowly and purposefully from teacher-as-model, to joint responsibility, to independent practice and application by the learner'

(Levy, 2008, p. 1)
Gradual release - Retrieved from:
Guided instruction time is the ideal stage where differentiation can occur. Instruction can be varied by:
Individually, with small, purposeful groups of students with "a common instructional need that the teacher can address" or carefully planned heterogeneous learning groups (Fisher & Frey, 2008, p. 3).
Retrieved from
Source: Fisher & Frey (2008)
What are they?
Promoted Behaviors and Skills
Student-Centered Pros and Cons
In the Classroom
Deductive and Inductive Strategies
Deductive Strategies

Focus Lesson/"I do": Lesson's purpose expressed, thinking is modeled, direct explanations, metacognitive awareness lessons and think-alouds employed. Teacher focused.
Guided Instruction/"We do together"
: Teacher uses prompts, cues, questions, explanations, and modeling to guide student thinking and increase student responsibility for task performance. Teacher and student focused.
Collaborative Work/ "You do Together": "Teachers design and supervise tasks that enable students to work in productive groups." Student centered.
Independent Work/"You do"
: Teachers design and supervise tasks for independent application of new learning. Independent studies, learning centers, and writing to
prompts as examples. Students ask questions, confer w/
adults or teacher on progress, obtain feedback, and
plan for future assignments. Student centered.
Burden & Byrd, 2013, pp 124-125
Differentiation can be performed at all
levels through the language we use,
the tasks we ask students to perform,
through assessment type, goal setting,
and student self-assessment.

*Model allows for differentiation at all levels for all students, even ELL's.
* Greater opportunities for students to learn from their peers (Gibney & McCarthy, 2012, p. 83).
*Social active approach to tasks, such as reading increases student engagement (Gibney & McCarthy, 2012, p. 83).
*Greater comprehension when model is used (Gibney & McCarthy, 2012, p. 83).

*Requires a great amount of teacher moderation in the classroom, in large classrooms this can be difficult (Ahmed & Yang, 2012, p. 1).
*Formative ways of assessment must be performed repeatedly (Burden & Byrd, 2013, p. 125).
*Difficult to fit all levels of the model into a forty minute class period until one becomes more skilled in the approach
(Gibney & McCarthy, 2012, p. 83).
*Gauging the appropriate transition time between stages.
ex: Newly, (or barely) learned tasks do not make for good independent learning tasks (Fisher & Frey, November 2008).

Used within the continuum, deductive and inductive strategies allow teachers to supplement each instructional approach and enhance student learning.
In a French class, the teacher says to her students "You are going to write a blog about what you like to do and what you don't like to do. To say that you like something, use the structure 'J'aime....' To say you don't like something, use the negative structure of ' Je n'aime pas....'What you like to do could be a sport. For example, ' J'aime bien jouer au foot.' Something you don't like to to do could be chore-related and you could say, 'Je n'aime pas faire le ménage.' With a partner, practice saying three things you like to do and three things you don't like to do. Once you've worked out what it is you want to say and practiced saying it aloud, raise your hand and I will come over..."
These direct strategies involve logical reasoning "in which the teacher starts with a known principle or concept followed by examples of the concept" (Burden & Byrd, 2013, p. 126). Teachers may use this strategy in direct instructional approaches.
Implementing a
Deductive Strategy
"I like... I don't like...."
Inductive Strategies
These indirect strategies involve example-led reasoning where "the lesson begins with examples, and the students examine the examples in an effort to identify the main principal or concept" (Burden & Byrd, 2013, p. 126). With this strategy teachers often employ indirect instruction.
Implementing an Inductive
"Good Advertising"
(OER4Schools, 2012)
Instruction that is teacher-centered is considered direct instruction. Typically, the teacher "selects the instructional objectives,corresponding content, and the instructional strategies" used in her lessons (Burden & Byrd, 2013, p. 123). Since the teacher dictates the pace and produces the information in a sequential manner, she is able to "introduce new skills or concepts in a relatively short period of time" (Burden & Byrd, 2013, p. 127). In one class period, a teacher can model how to annotate for understanding, explain and demonstrate the proper use of a graphing calculator, or how correctly shading a drawing can add dimension. This type of instruction is reserved for transmitting "lower-level information" (Burden & Byrd, 2013, p. 128).
The Direct Approach
Direct Instruction in Reading
(Luddy, 2007)
Indirect Instructional Approach
This student-centered instructional strategy allows students to take on a more active instructional role than they would with direct instruction. Serving as a "guide and a resource," teachers point out the objectives and lesson content while students complete these tasks through cooperative and interactive activities (Burden & Byrd, 2013, p. 124). The objectives of indirect instruction require higher-level thinking on the part of the student, often requiring application, analysis, making connections, and information acquisition (Burden & Byrd, 2013). It is up to the teacher to decide when her class is prepared for this type of instruction and to ensure that everyone is participating during this time.
(Bendry, 2009)
(Wilson & Peterson, 2006, pg.19)
Fisher & Frey, 2008, p.1
yes, but still doable!
Teacher-Centered Pros and Cons
"To make this transfer of responsibility, we must give students supports that they can hold on to as they take the lead - not just push them onto the path and hope they find their way."
*Effective teacher modeling
*Access to academic language
*Peer collaboration and accountability
*Effective guided instruction.
Key to Success

Fisher & Frey, November 2008
Levy E, 2008, p. 1
The Continuum
Source: Burden and Byrd, 2013
Instructional strategy in which the student takes a more active role in directing their own learning.
Instructional strategy in which the teacher is largely responsible for directing student learning.
Question-Answer Sessions
Independent Work
Student Debates
Student Research
Cooperative Learning
In Conclusion...
Research Skills
Analytical Skills
Upper Level Cognition
Listening Skills
Relational Skills
Ability to Accept Direction
Interpretive Skills
...there are clear benefits to both teacher-centered and student-centered educational approaches.

A teacher is likely to see the greatest benefit to their students when they approach classes somewhere in the center of the continuum between these two styles, incorporating both teacher-centered and student-centered techniques in their curriculum.
Students are guided through topics
Teachers can contribute intentionally enriching information
Teachers can keep students on track with curriculum requirements
Teachers are in touch with student progress and can offer assistance when students struggle
Students become reliant upon teacher guidance
Learning outside of presented bounds is not encouraged
Students may tend to memorize facts for assessment, but not truly learn
Students are not necessarily encouraged to develop skills outside of knowledge acquisition
Students are encouraged to develop independence
Students develop strong research skills
Students are encouraged to develop their interests
Students develop creative approaches to understanding topics
Promotes higher level cognition
Student struggles may not be immediately recognized
Students may stray from curriculum in non-productive directions
Teacher contribution is decreased and could cost students valuable information
The student-teacher relationship may be diminished
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