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Transcript of Ancient Civilizations
By : Amani Gilbert
Ancient Egyptian government
The ancient egyptians were grouped by having the richest and more powerful at the top and the poor and less powerful at the bottom. for example : all the farmers and slaves were at the bottom. Then the craftsmen and the merchants . And lastly on top of the pyramid was the soldiers , the government officials and the Pharaoh of course.
Ancient Egyptian achievments
Ancient Egypt had many scientific and cultural achievements. The ancient egyptians were one of the first civilizations to use mathematical numbers as a everyday tool. They use math and numbers to determine the amount of bread to be evenly divided among groups of men. Hieroglyphics was invented by the egyptians around 3,200 bc . It was mostly used for formal writing such as religious texts. Lastly the ancient egyptians was the first civilization to use boating as a everyday transportation tool. Egypt has a large source of water right through the middle of it called the nile river. The egyptians needed a way to get across the nile river so that they could trade goods.
Ancient egyptian religion
The ancient egyptians religion was polytheistic. This means that they believed in multiple gods. They believed in over 700 gods and goddesses. Some of the major gods/goddesses the believed in included Oris. He was a wise king who married his sister. Egyptians seen him as triumphant over death. Another god they worshiped was Ra. Ra was the sun god. He was also one of the most important ancient egyptians gods. He was symbolically born every morning at sunrise and he died every night with the sunset.
This is a image of three egyptian pyramids . Khufu (biggest) , menkaure and the Khafre pyramid.
Ancient egyptian's existence
Ancient egypt lasted from 3,000 bc until Perisa conquered it (525 bc). So it basically lasted for about 3,000 to 4,100 years.
this is a picture of the everyday life in ancient Mesopotamia
Ancient Mesopotamia's government
Ancient Mesopotamia's government was a combination of monarchy and democracy. They elected a group of people to run the government. Kings ruled the people, but they still had to ask the assembly for permission to do some things. The kings were elected by the assembly. They gave their powers to family members when they grew old.
There were four classes in ancient Mesopotamia. The priest was at the top, and the slaves were at the bottom. The priest were the most powerful out of every body . They had to make sure everyone behaved the way they would make the gods happy. The slaves on the other hand, they worked for the kings. They were captured from another town and were brought back to Mesopotamia as slaves. To buy one of these slaves to work for you, it would cost more than a donkey but less than a cow.
Ancient Mesopotamia's religion
The religion in ancient Mesopotamia was polytheistic.Marduk was one of the most important gods in ancient Mesopotamia history. Marduk's symbol animal was a 'snake dragon'. He was considered a calf of the sun and the sun god.aspect of the world at the time was controlled by supernatural forces. They worshiped many gods. Some of the most important gods they worshiped included Marduk . He was the patron god of the city of Babylon. Marduk was also one of the most powerful gods in ancient Mesopotamia history. His animal symbol was the 'snake dragon' . Marduk was considered the sun calf or the sun god.
Ancient Mesopotamia's cultural and scientific achievements
Ancient Mesopotamia achieved many things. They created the wheel, roads,plow, and many more things. One of their most important achievements was the creation of Hammarabi's codes. Hammarabi's code was the first set of written laws created by Hammarbi, who was a king of babylon. It showed the nature of laws in Babylon . Although some of the rules were a bit outragious , it was a priority for them to follow Hammurabi's code at all times.
Kalamkari is an ancient Indian art that originated about 3000 years ago.
Ancient India's Government
Ancient Mesopotamia's Government
Ancient Mesopotamia lasted for about 5,000 years. It lasted from 5500 bce to 500 bce. The fall of ancient Mesopotamia was caused by overpopulation , war, changes to the environment and more .
The common form of government in ancient India was Monarchy. Monarchy is the form of government which the power goes all to one individual. They have power until they die. Ancient India had a strong government. Once the government and economy improved, ancient India's population increased. The kings would have spies that would go around and tell them whats going on around town.
Ancient India's social structure
The ancient indian society was divided into four parts. The highest class included the kings, government officials, priest, wealthy merchants and landowners. The middle class included the farmers, the fishermen, the scribes and the potters. lastly , the lowest class included slaves, prisoners, people who didn't own land and children .
Ancient India's religion
Ancient India had three religions. Those included Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism. Jainism began around 600 bce. It included 24 spiritual leaders called Tirthankaras. Buddhism was a religion and philosophy developed by the teachings of the Buddha. The Buddha lived from 566 to 486 bce. The Buddha Taught 4 noble truths ; There is suffering ,suffering has a cause , suffering has an end ,there is a path out of suffering. Hinduism Began between 3000 and 2000 bce. Its the dominant religion of India.
Ancient India's cultural and scientific achievements
Ancient India was the birthplace of many things. They birthed several mathematical concepts such as square root, decimals, and algebra in general. They also were the first people to realize that the world is round and not flat. They were one of the first the perform surgery. lastly they discovered over 1,000 diseases and cured them.
Ancient India's existence
Ancient India lasted for about 4,000 years. It rose in 3000 bc and it fell in 320 ad. Ancient India fell for many reasons. One of the reasons it fell was because the climate. People began to migrate out of India. The climate change made people abandon India . Another reason is because they had massive inequality.
This picture shows how chinese women looked during ancient chinese civilization
Ancient China's government
Ancient China had a government ruled by dynasties. The government these dynasties managed was stern and strict. They enforced the rules and the law. They had massive armies and labor forces. Emperors and rulers were to be models for their subjects. The first ancient chinese ruler was Quin Shi Haung. He united china and he ruled from 231 bc to 219 bc.
Ancient China's social structure
Ancient china had three groups in their social structure. At the highest level was the kings and the nobles. Then in second class came the lords and the warriors. Lastly in the lowest class was the peasants.The kings led the government. The lords responsibilities were to pay the taxes to the king, and to provide warriors to protect the land.The peasants job was to farm the nobles land and the work for the king and the nobles.
Ancient China's religion
Ancient china's had three religions. One religion was Confucianism. Confucianism was formed by confucius which was tpught to teach people to respect their elders and higher classes. The ancient chinese also believed in the teachings of Buddhism. Buddhism was brought from india and created by an ancient philosopher named the Buddha. And lastly it was taoism. Taoism was formed by Lao Zi . It was created because Lao ZI wanted to teach people that there is alwasys good in the bad and there is always bad in the good. He wanted everyone to believe in nature.
Ancient china's cultural and scientific achievements
Ancient china has invented a lot of things that we still use today. They invented paper,silk,rubber and so much more. They also created gunpower. Gunpower is something that we still use in war today.They also invented fireworks . They were originally used to put on shows, but they later used them to scare enemies.
Ancient china's existence
The ancient chinese civilization lasted for about 5,000 years. It lasted so long because it was isolated which made it nearly impossible for intruders to attack them. Also because they had the great wall of china which helped block out any enemies from trying to attack and invade them.
this is a picture of a building in Greece where they go to worship and ask questions to a certain greek goddesses that they worship
Ancient greek government
Ancient Greece was made up of many city states. When the city states were formed together they made one large country. Each city state governed itself. The two main city states were Athens and Sparta. In Sparta , the boys and girls were trained to be military leaders. Athens was the capital of ancient Greece. It had the first democracy.
Ancient Greece social structure
The social structure for ancient Greece was divided into six groups. The Pharaoh was at the top. Then after the Pharaoh came the Senior officals, high priest, and the nobles. Then came the scribes. In the fourth spot of the pyramid came the skilled artisans and the craftsmen. And peasants and farmers came next. And lastly after the, came the servants and the slaves.
Ancient greek religion
Religion was very important to the ancient greeks. They believed that it would make their lives better. They believed that the gods would take care of them after they died. The ancient greeks were polytheistic. They believed in many gods and goddesses.
Ancient greek cultural and scientific achievements
Ancient Greece had many achievements. They created the democracy. Ancient Greece was also the birthplace of modern philosophy and logic. Theatre was very popular in ancient Greece . They put on plays and performance . Also man named Anaxagoras tried to give a scientific account of eclipses, meteors and rainbows. Another achievement is the ability to collect his materials systematically
Ancient Greece existence
Ancient Greece began in 1100 bc. This was around the time of the trojan war. It ended with the conquest of Greece by AL. This was around 146 bc. It
this is a picture of the Colosseum where the ancient Romans held events such as plays and gladiator fights
Ancient Rome government
The roman empire was ruled by empereors.The emperor had to listen to advise from the senate . But before 48 bc , Rome was know as a republic. This was before Julius Caesar took control. The roman empire wasn't ruled by an emperor, but by two consuls who were elected by the citizens of Rome.
Ancient Rome's religion
Christianity was made the official religion of the roman empire in 400 ad. It was confirmed by the empire at the time who was Emperor Constantine. But before then, christians got in trouble for not worshiping the emperor as their god. Some of them were even arrested and put to death.
Ancient Rome's social structure
The upperclass people were called patricians. They had a lot of money and they were highly educated. They had way more advantages than anyone else. Next after them comes the Plebeians. The Plebeians were the low class and poor citizens. Then came the slaves. They're at the bottom of class system. The only way you could become a slave is if you were a plebiean and you fell into debt or if you were a prisoner.
Ancient Rome's cultural and scientific achievements
The Romans developed many new architecture techniques. Such as arches. They also spread their language ( Latin ) across Europe and many other places. They created many boardgames and other games that some people still play to this day.
Ancient Rome's existence
Ancient Rome was founded in 756bc. It came to an end in 476 ad. The empire ended with its removal of it's last emperor, Augustulus Romulus. There was no longer a bureaucracy that collected taxes in the West, and when there was no longer a Roman army fielded in the west.