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Education and Prison Reform
Transcript of Education and Prison Reform
and depended on much. Even in New England, support for
public education was declined. School buildings were not
in good condition, as were textbooks. Materials were scarce
and teachers were not reliable to give a provide a good education. Horace Mann was an American education reformer. He gew up in poverty and decided to educate himself in a library in his hometown. He became the states first secretary of the Board of Education in 1837. He believed "the absolute right to an education of every human being that comes in to the world."
He reformed the school system by increasing state spending on schools, lengthening the school year, dividing the students into grades, and introducing standardized textbooks. Much of the North reformed its schools along the lines dictated by Horace Mann, and free public schools spread throughout the region. Leaders Many people at this time believed public schooling
was only for the poor. Wealthier people refused to
pay taxes for public education because they put their
children in private schools. While other reform
movements began to occur, people also started to
realize that education is essential. Americans also
started to think about the future and who will be in
charge at that time. Their children. They wondered
who the politicians would be and realized the new
generation needs a good education. Goal
The goal of this reform movement was
to keep children educated so the
country can maintain a democracy.
Politicans began fearing the affects of an
illiterate, ill-educated electorate. Strategies to Improve
The government made a tax that obliged everyone to pay for public schools
The movement to reform began only in rural areas, it started with one room schoolhouses and they provided a minimal education
School reformers hoped to improve education so that children would become responsible citizens sharing common cultural values
Extending the right to vote to all free males definitely contributed to improve the movement. Successes and Failures
After Horace Mann's reformation of the schools, the North also followed along his lines and organized their schools.
The South, on the other hand, made little progress in public education, partly owing to its low population density and a general indifference toward progressive reforms. Reformers during this era also launched campaigns against the prison system, where conditions were horrible. Prisons were still common and housed the majority of American “criminals”—mostly the poor, who sometimes owed creditors only a few dollars. Dorothea Dix She volunteered to hold a devotional hour for women in the East Cambridge jail and discovered that some of the inmates were chained in a filthy, cold cell simply because they were mentally ill. She reported the situation to a local court. Dix's charges were rejected, but she made the situation public, and efforts were made to improve conditions. Several powerful men came to Dix's aid after that. With their influence, the legislature was persuaded to accept the bill to expand the state hospital for the mentally ill at Worcester. Causes
The problem was discovered by Dorothea Dix when she volunteered to help in the prison.
She realized mentally ill, poor and innocent people were all sharing cells. Then she investigated and reported treatment of insane. Effects
Reduction in crimes punishable by death
Abolishing of public hangings in many states
Abandoning flogging and other cruel punishments Solutions to the Reform Movement
Dorothea Dix established five asylums in America and also went to Europe where she successfully pleaded for human rights to Queen Victoria and the Pope.
The champion of discipline and first national figure in prison reform was Louis Dwight. founder of the Boston Prison Discipline Society, he spread the Auburn system throughout America's jails and added salvation.
America finally enjoyed about a decade of real reform. Idealism created a new generation of leaders including Francis Lieber and Samuel Gridley Howe. Their goals were prison libraries, basic literacy (for Bible reading), reduction of whipping and beating, commutation of sentences, and separation of women, children and the sick. Goal: To isolate the mentally ill from third degree criminals. Failures
In reality it became clear that, despite intervention by outsiders, prisoners were often no better off, and often worse off. Yet, in keeping with the optimistic spirit of the era, these early reformers had only begun a crusade to improve human suffering that continues today.
Prison conditions were improved and criminals were seperated from mentally ill. In result of this movement, many asylums were built all around America. THE END Bibliography America:Pathways to History 2007 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_reform http://www.ushistory.org/us/26d.asp http://www.civilwarhome.com/dixbio.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horace_Mann http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/pre