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Biology Chapter 2 Section 2 Properties of Water

Miller Levine Dragonfly Book
by

Mark Meredith

on 30 August 2015

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Transcript of Biology Chapter 2 Section 2 Properties of Water

END OF SECTION
Hydrogen bonds between water molecules result from
adhesion between water molecules.
magnetic attractions between water molecules.
uneven electron distribution in each water molecule.
ionic bonds in the water molecule.
2-2
A dissolved substance is called a
solvent.
solution.
solute.
Suspension.
2-2
A water molecule is neutral, but can react to form hydrogen and hydroxide ions.
H2O  ->  H+ + OH-
Acids, Bases, and pH
Two types of mixtures can be made with water
solutions
suspensions
Solutions and Suspensions
The Water Molecule
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Cohesion
is an attraction between molecules of the same substance.
Because of
hydrogen bonding
, water is extremely cohesive.
On a pH scale, a value of 2 means that the solution has
equal concentrations of H+ and OH- ions.
the same concentration of H+ ions as pure water.
higher concentration of H+ than in pure water.
lower concentration of H+ than in pure water.
2-2
A molecule in which the charges are unevenly distributed is called a
polar molecule.
cohesive molecule.
hydrogen molecule.
covalent molecule.
2-2
Buffers 
The pH of the fluids within most cells in the human body must generally be kept between 6.5 and 7.5.









Controlling pH is important for maintaining
homeostasis
.
Acids, Bases, and pH
Acids
An acid is any compound that
forms H+ ions
in solution. 
Acids, Bases, and pH
The pH scale 
Chemists devised a measurement system called the pH scale to indicate the
concentration of H+ ions in solution
.
The pH scale ranges from 0 to 14.
Acids, Bases, and pH
Solutions
All the components of a solution are evenly distributed throughout the solution.

solute
—the substance that is dissolved.

solvent
—the substance in which the solute dissolves.
Solutions and Suspensions
A
mixture
is a material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed
but not chemically combined
.
Solutions and Suspensions
Adhesion
is an attraction between molecules of different substances.
The Water Molecule
Hydrogen Bonds
Because of their partial positive and negative charges, polar molecules can attract each other.
The Water Molecule
The Water Molecule
A compound that produces hydroxide ions in solution is called a(an)
base.
buffer.
acid.
salt.
2-2
Water
Water
Cl -
Cl -
Na+
Na+
When a crystal of table salt is placed in warm water, sodium and chloride ions are attracted to the polar water molecules.
Solutions and Suspensions
A water molecule is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
The Water Molecule
2-2 Properties of Water
Bases
A base is a compound that
produces hydroxide ions (OH- ions)
in solution. 
Acids, Bases, and pH
The pH Scale
At a pH of 7, the concentration of H+ ions and OH- ions is equal.
Acids, Bases, and pH
Suspensions 
Some materials do not dissolve when placed in water but separate into pieces so small that they do not settle out easily.
Solutions and Suspensions
Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
Properties of Water
Full transcript