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Transcript of Psych Conformity
(BIG TUNA, Speed Bump, Dr. Jay and Gloria) Asch (1951) Hofstede (1973) Hofstede Cont. Asch Cont. Aim: To what extent will social pressure from a majority group affect a person's willingness to conform Method:
participant entered room with six other confederates
took and 18 question "vision test"
test consisted of two cards and had to choose which line on one card matched the other lines on the other card
real participant always went last
confederates purposely chose 12 out of the 18 questions to choose the wrong answer Why do People conform?
- Informational social influence: based on the way people cognitively process information about a situation
- Normative Social Influence:the influence of other people that leads us to conform in order to be liked and accepted by them Findings:
75% of the participants conformed at least once out of the 12 questions
32% conformed to at least half of the wrong answers
shows that social pressure can lead to a person's willingness to conform all of the participants were males
all of the participants were from Swarthmore College
no mention of culture
lacks cross cultural validity
laboratory experiment Aim: To see the perspectives of a culture based on values and cultural norms. Method:
participants were employees from IBM
filled out a survey about the morale in a workplace
looked at 40 different countries Findings:
found that there are dimensions that cultures fit into
individualism vs. collectivism
uncertainty vs. avoidance gender of participants is unknown
all from the same company
researched a variety of cultures
all ethics were followed
laboratory setting Evaluation Evaluation Contradiction Examples:
Culture affects personal characteristics or group membership and is used as a way to define oneself.
- cliques in school
- define by religion, race, gender ect.
- peer pressure Evaluation: Aim: To investigate whether people are influenced by others. - Ethically there were a few errors because the participants were led to believe that the experiment was investigating visual perception and they were told that the experimenter was going to move the light when that was never done
- the gender of the participants was not given
- no ecological validity due to a laboratory experiment
- no cross cultural validity Findings: The participants conformed to the other participants answers and created the group norm. The group norm was different for each group. The participants claimed that their choices were not influenced by others. Method:
-The first time, participants were alone and were asked to make 100 measurements on how far a light moved.
-Participants were joined by two others and asked how far a light seemed to move on a far wall.
-the participants in the group reached a group norm
-the third time, participants did the experiment alone again Sherif (1935) Confirmation Confidence and Self Esteem Stang (1973) Aim:
To investigate if individual's self-esteem will affect conformity rate. Method:
similar to Asch's experiment in 1955
Rather than use a test with public compliance like what Asch used, Stang used a test known as Crutchfield's procedure.
The Crutchfield procedure allows subjects to express their opinions privately
Test had questions to increase self esteem and then harder ones to test confidence Findings
Conformity using this procedure was found to be lower (50% conformed to a wrong judgement).
The Answers that people gave were based on what the person actually thought to be true, rather than just going along with what the group thought the answer was.
Known as internalization, or private acceptance.
subjects with high self-esteem conform less than those with low self-esteem, on the Crutchfield procedure Evaluation
Crutchfield techniques involve individuals making judgements,expressing opinions, and becoming aware of what others think in the absence of social interaction. A little unrealistic
Don't know how gender, culture, and age was divided.
Shouldn't be generalized.