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Lesson 1: Geography of Europe

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Kevin Hunt

on 20 March 2014

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Transcript of Lesson 1: Geography of Europe

Lesson 1: Geography of Europe
Physical Features of Europe
Europe is a continent
Part of

EURASIA

(large landmass that includes both Europe and Asia)
Ural Mts. separate Europe from Asia
mountain ranges cover much of the south
European Plain-a mostly flat plain-covers much of northern Europe
-->Stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mts.
Europe has several major rivers that start in the mountains and flow to the sea
Climate and Vegetation
Europe After the Fall of Rome
As Rome fell, various groups from the north and east moved into Roman lands
These groups created their own states
Their rulers were powerful warlords who called themselves kings
Wars were common amongst these groups for power
Early 500's - Europe is divided into small kingdoms
Time Period is given two names:
Middle Ages
-
period that lasted from 500 AD to 1500 AD
Called "middle" because it falls between ancient and modern times
Medieval Period
-
means "the middle age"
Many kingdoms in the north were not Christian
Christianity was only common in areas once controlled by Rome
Christianity spread north due to missionaries and monks
Missionaries
MISSIONARIES
(people who try to convert others to a religion)
Traveled great distances to spread Christianity
Missionaries were sent by
POPES
(head of the Roman Catholic Church)
to northern Europe
Many were mostly sent to Britain to convert the Celts while others were sent to France and Germany
St. Patrick - 400's AD
Monk who helped convert the people of Ireland to Christianity
He was kidnapped as a boy from Britain
He was taken to Ireland and forced to work as a shepherd
6 years later he escaped back to Britain
He returned as a man to Ireland to spread Christianity
According to legend - he won favor with the Irish by driving all of the snakes into the sea
After his death St. Patrick was declared a Saint of Ireland
Monks
MONKS
(religious men who lived apart from society in isolated communities)
Spent much time in prayer, work, and meditation
Lived in

MONASTERIES
(communities of monks)

- spread Christianity to remote areas
Monasteries were strictly organized
--> monks had to follow rules that helped them lead good lives
--> these rules told them how to dress and what to eat
500's AD - Italian monk named Benedict created a set of rules that most European monasteries would follow
These rules became called Benedictine Rule
Those who followed these rules were called Benedictine monks
Monasteries provided healthcare and other forms of aid
Monk Activities:
ran schools
copied the Bible and other books
collected and saved ancient writings from Greece and Rome
advised local rulers
Saint Benedict
Benedictine Rules
73 chapters outlining rules for monks to follow
Rules include:
- abbots (head of monasteries) are responsible for all the souls in their care
-absolute unhesitating obedience to the abbot
-follow the 12 Degrees of Humility
-eat two meals a day - no meat shall be eaten from animals with four feet
-monks are prohibited from receiving letters or gifts without the abbots approval
-clothing must be plain and of cheap cloth - one extra set of clothing is allowed
-abbots will be elected by monks
-all must cheerfully do what is commanded
-monks may not strike or defend each other
Unit 9: Middle Ages
Southern Europe
Warm and sunny
Vegetation that doesn't need much water grows there
Most people lived on coastal plains or river valleys
People didn't live far from the sea- became traders and seafarers
Could grow a variety of different types of produce due to the longer growing season
Northern Europe
Mild and cool - four seasons
Winter can be very cold
Most people lived far from the sea - mostly along rivers
Towns grew up along rivers
Rivers provided some protection from invasion
Plains provided excellent farmland
--> BUT they were easy to invade
- no mountains for protection

The year 500, Benedict became so upset by the immorality of society in Rome that he gave up his studies there
He chose the life of an ascetic monk in the pursuit of personal holiness
He lived as a hermit in a cave near the rugged region of Subiaco
He began to attract disciples
He founded the monastery of Monte Cassino in 529, where he wrote his Rule near the end of his life
(1) Fear God
(2) Subordinate one's will to the will of God
(3) Be obedient to one's superior
(4) Be patient amid hardships
(5) Confess one's sins
(6) Accept oneself as a "worthless workman"
(7) Consider oneself "inferior to all"
(8) Follow examples set by superiors (9) Do not speak until spoken to
(10) Do not laugh
(11) Speak simply and modestly
(12) Be humble in bodily posture
12 Degrees of Humility
Becoming a Monk
The postulant first spends a short time as a guest; then he is admitted to the novitiate where his vocation is severely tested; during this time he is always free to leave. If after twelve months' probation he perseveres, he may promise before the whole community -- "stability, conversion of manners, and obedience". With this vow he binds himself for life to the monastery and must forsake all parts of his former life.
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