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Transcript of 1984
affect the individual: In perspective... 1984 = Today's society? Propaganda ... it is solely for the purposes of warfare and espionage When science is tolerated... Some persuasive techniques used: provides opportunities to logically disprove the practices of Big Brother
provides opportunity for the advancement of realms that Big Brother does not deem necessary (e.g. GMOs) Science is prohibited in Oceania because: How did Ingsoc persuade a whole nation? Science, as we know it, has ceased to
exist in the nation of Oceania. In its new language, Newspeak, 'science' is not a word. Science Communications By Melanie Brister Indoctrination
Illusion of control
Informational influence We can't tell people what to think, but we can tell people what to think about.
(Lippman, 1922) •Faces, to relate – “Big Brother is the guise in which the Party chooses to exhibit itself to the world. His function is to act as a focusing point for love, fear and reverence, emotions which are more easily felt towards an individual than towards an organization.” p. 217
•The power of nightmares (Two Minutes of Hate)– “He is supposed to live in a continuous frenzy of hatred of foreign enemies and internal traitors, triumph over victories, and self-abasement before the power and wisdom of the Party.” p. 220
•Consistency – “For to change one’s mind, or even one’s policy, is a confession of weakness.” p.222
•Internal propaganda – “It is in the ranks of the Party, and above all of the Inner Party, that the true war enthusiasm is found.” p. 225
•Pseudo events – “ And if all others accepted the lie which the Party imposed – if all records told the same tale – the the lie passed into history and became truth.” p. 37
•Selective word choices (Newspeak) – “Don’t you see that the whole aim of Newspeak is to narrow the range of thought? … Newspeak is Ingsoc and Ingsoc is Newspeak.” p. 55 They used the same techniques public relations
practitioners use today. Propaganda “The empirical method of thought, on which all the scientific achievements of the past were founded, is opposed to the fundamental principles of Ingsoc. And even technological progress only happens when its products can in some way be used for the diminution of human liberty.” P.201 Thus, science in the nation of Oceania is limited to fields that help to control thought. “ The scientist of today is either a mixture of psychologist and inquisitor, studying with extraordinary minuteness the meaning of facial expressions, gestures and tones of voice, and testing the truth-producing effects of drugs, therapy, hypnoses and physical torture; or he is chemist, physicist or biologist concerned only with such branches of his special subject as are relevant to the taking of life.” p.201-202 “Newspeak was designed not to extend but to diminish the range of thought…” p.313 By eliminating the word 'science', and most words associated with it, concepts disappear. For if the word does not exist, then meaning behind it disappears as well. Newspeak and indexicality... "Words are a kind of information retrieval that can range over the total environment and experience at high speed. Words are complex systems of metaphors and symbols that translate experiences into our uttered or outered senses. They are a technology of explicitness. By means of translation of immediate sense experience into vocal symbols the entire world can be evoked and retrieved in an instant." (Mcluhan, 1994, p.57) Questions? Works cited:
Brake, M., & Weitkamp, E. (2010). Introducing science communication: a practical guide. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lippmann, W (1922). Public opinion. New York: Harcourt.
McLuhan, M. (1994). Understanding media: the extensions of man. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Orwell, G. (1949). 1984. London: Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd.. This presentation will consist of: Science in 1984
Communications in 1984 Social Constructionism "Scientific knowledge is socially constructed...."
(Brake, M., & Weitkamp, E. 2010, p.46)