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Transcript of agrarian problem
1. tribal hunters & gatherers
2. shifting cultivators
3. those with sedentary culture
4. Muslims -Because of the agrarian problem, the farmer is poorer.
-He cannot afford to pay more taxes and thus, government cannot raise sufficient revenue with which to support its operations.
-The farmer is poor and less and less people
want to be farmers
-The people leaves the farms
-They flock to cities to try their luck.
-There is overcrowding and “urban squatting”,
unemployment and crime. Historico-Political Survey of the Agrarian Problems Development of tenancy under Spain Agrarian Reform under Martial Law & 1973 Constitution Philippine Agrarian Problem There were various types of land patterns practiced in the Philippines Social Justice Program during the Commonwealth Period 1. Presidential Decree No. 2- declaring the entire Philippines as land reform area
2. Presidential Decree No. 27 – “emancipating the tenant-farmers from the bondage of the soil”
3. Several other decrees on agrarian reform were issued by the President under his martial law powers and the legislative authority granted to him by Amendment No. 6 to the 1973 Constitution. AGRARIAN REFORM IN THE PHILIPPINES Agrarian Problem 1. Two important dimensions 2. A basic problem of Philippine Society Pre-Spanish land situation a. Commonwealth Act No. 103 – created the Court of Industrial Relations
b. Commonwealth Act no. 213 – regulated legitimate labor organizations
c. Commonwealth Acts.178,461,& 608- gave more protection to tenants -Land and the people; Agricultural and the social -Productivity and human rights - Person who tills the land does not own it and the person who owns the land does not till it. - Person who tills the land does not own it and the person who owns the land does not till it. - The non-tilling owner gets more income while the non-owning tiller gets relatively poorer and poorer VICIOUS CIRCLE OF POVERTY AND INJUSTICE 3. Basically a question of land and distribution and utilization -Land is necessary for all human beings & everybody has the right to use land for his survival -The right to use is given to all individuals but the matter to be used is limited & the number of users unlimited -The right to own property, universal but limited A derivative of the right to use
We have the right to own things because we have the right to use things in order to live. If this is not so, what then is the basis of our right to ownership? Corollary
While the right to own is derived from right to use, the right to own is further qualified by its proper use. b. Social classes
Since the pre-Spanish Filipinos were not highly integrated and fused into a national unity because of the nature of their geography as well as their society, they were found living in rather isolated groups called “barangays”. It is subdivided into three main classes (ruled over by a headman or datu) Nobles – free from tribute payment, could own land, and paid few exaction to the chief Serfs – entitled to cultivate the certain lands, but were required to pay annual fee of one half of the yield of their crops to the datu. Slaves – served the datu or the nobles and were owned by them. a. Encomienda system
b. Rise of the cacique class
c. Early rebellions
d. Conflicts over land ownership
e. Friar lands
f. Philippine revolution Land Tenure Situation under the American Regime a. Actual increase in tenancy rate
b. Purchase of friar lands
d. Peasant rebellions & opposition
e. Rice Share Tenancy Act ( Act No. 4050)
f. Sugar Cane Tenancy contracts Act (Act No. 4113) Effects of Japanese Occupation The Japanese occupation of the Philippines from 1941 to 1945 had a tremendous impact on the agrarian issue
From the ranks of the peasant & labor organizations & from the merger of the Communist Party of the Philippines & Socialist Party rose the Hukbong Magpapalaya sa Bayan Post War Attempts at Agrarian Reform a. Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954 ( Ra No. 1199)
b. Land Reform Act of 1955 (Ra No. 1400)
c. Land resettlement as a solution
d. The Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963 ( RA No. 3844)
e. Amendments to the Agricultural Land Reform Code ( R.A. 6389)
f. Agrarian Reform Special Fund Act ( RA 6369) Agrarian Reform under the 1987 Constitution 1. President Aquino signed Proclamation No. 131 instituting a Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (Carp) & EO No. 229 providing for the mechanisms
2. She issued EO No. 129-A : Department of Agrarian Reform
The primary governing law on agrarian reform at present is Republic Act 6657, the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988 Reported by NICOLLE ARCIAGA to be continued by:
PATRICIA ANGELU MENESES No system of land ownership Regarded all land as their public domain, although they did not choose to cultivate all of the available land No formalized procedures for recognizing private ownership (deeds, title, tax documents) Pagan system Spanish policy was to recognize all land in the Philippines as part of the public domain regardless of local customs Resulting grants; resulted in the exploitation of the inhabitants and their land particularly since the land now had to support the agriculturally unproductive Spaniards. Spaniards began to group several barangays together into administrative units. Grew of Cacique system led to occasional rebellions during the 18th century. Enforced labor, the relatively heavy head tax, and the required contributions to the church and the officials were the principal causes of rebellion. Caciques took advantage of the enlightened peasants and claimed peasants’ lands adjacent to their own holdings. Late 19th century: amount of land held in grant from the Spanish crown by the religious orders. “CANON to the friars” tax paid by the tenants living in church land Church estates were confiscated by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo and landless peasants were allowed to settle on Church lands. Spanish land records that had existed were either destroyed or lost, leaving legal situation with regard to holdings very complicated. Caciques who had maintained their positions through the Spanish period were able to keep and even strengthen their positions under the Americans. Decreased of number of farms directly attributed to the tenancy towards greater concentration of farms in the hands of fewer individuals and in the rapid increase in the number operated under some form of tenancy. The land was subdivided and offered for sale to the Filipinos residing on it at a rate of 8% interest over a 25-year period. US negotiated the purchase of 23 Friar Estates during the early years of this century. Public Land Act of July 1, 1902, offering homestead plots not in excess of 16 hectares to families who had occupied and cultivated the tract they were residing on since August 1, 1898. Caciques took advantage of the peasants, their ignorance of the law, the high cost of court settlements and the inadequate surveys to continue gain title to lands which could have reverted to the peasants. Sakdalista Movement was initiated in 1930 by Benigno Ramos, a former official who opposed Quezon and the forthcoming Commonwealth, since he felt it would merely strengthen the cacique system. Pedro Abad Santos (who almost won against the candidate of the Pampango landlord in the 1940 election) espoused the idea of expropriation of the religious and private estates and their subdivision to the tenant-farmers as the only answer to agrarian unrest. Tenant-landlord relationship, a 50-50 sharing of the crop, regulation of interest to 10% per agricultural year, and safeguards against arbitrary dismissal by the landlord. Relationship of the landowners and tenants on sugar lands. Several laws were enacted to protect the working class both in industry and agriculture. 1941-1945: led to the rise of the HUKBALAHAP, lead by the charismatic peasant leader, Luis Taruc Rice Share Tenancy Act of 1933 proclaimed by Manuel Roxas