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Timeline of the Atom
Transcript of Timeline of the Atom
BY CAROLINE MADDEN, TALLEY DAVIDSON, LEAH TODD, ERICA LAVENDER
Mendeleev organized elements into 7 groups with similar properties. He discovered that the properties of elements "were periodic functions of the their atomic weights". This is known today as the Periodic Law. Furthermore, Mendeleev devised one of the first known Periodic Tables.
Irene Jolio Curie
Rutherford realized that the atom must have almost all of its mass concentrated at its center, the nucleus, with the vast majority of the atom consisting solely of empty space. Using alpha particles as atomic bullets, he probed the atoms in a piece of thin (0.00006 cm) gold foil. He established that the nucleus was very dense, small and positively charged. He also assumed that the electrons were located outside the nucleus.
This event was chosen because the Periodic Law helps organize the Periodic Table of elements by element, symbol,state, atomic mass, and atomic number. This helps scientists know the structure of the elements and makeup of the table.
Democritus was an ancient Greek philosopher who made many discoveries about the atom during 460-370 BC. He formulated what is thought to be the first atomic theory: The smallest pieces of matter are indivisible, which he named “atoms”, meaning “not be cut”. Atoms are different shapes and sizes, but made of the same material. He also said that there are an indefinite number of atoms, and they are always moving, and can connect together. Democritus is significant because considered to be the "father of modern science".
-This event was chosen because it was a break through in radioactive studies. Curie discovered artificial radioactivity and won a Nobel Prize for chemistry. This event was chosen over others because she was one of the only women to have a Nobel Prize for chemistry and it was a break through in radioactivity.
Marie Curie was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who experimented with pioneering research on radioactivity . She discovered two elements in 1898 and a way to isolate radioactive isotopes.
Marie Curie's event of experimenting with radioactivity and its effect on atoms was chosen because Curie was the first female Nobel Prize winner for both chemistry and physics in 1903 and 1911, and without her experimentation on radioactivity and atoms, the reasoning for atoms giving off energy and how to isolate that energy would be a mystery, and her discovery of the elements polonium and radium would not have been discovered. She ironically died at age 67 from aplastic anemia, likely due to high radioactive exposure.
This was a very important discovery because without knowing these essential characteristics of atoms and their nucleus, science today would not be the same.
Isaac Newton made a new atomic theory in 1704. He began to understand that atoms or particles move and are not stationary, and that they are held together with attractions called forces. Isaac Newton is significant because he made breakthrough discoveries about atoms that help later scientists further study how atoms movie and interact with each other.
Bohr refined Rutherford's model in 1913 by proposing that electrons:
1. orbit the nucleus without losing energy
2. could move only in fixed orbits of specific energies.
3. Electrons with low energy would orbit closer to the nucleus while electrons with high energy orbit further from the nucleus.
This event was important in the history of atoms and was chosen because he corrected the previous theory which therefore changes alot in he world of electrons.
Joseph John Thomson
Thomson completely altered the view of an atom by proving that an atom is a uniform and structured sphere that contains electrons with his renown plum pudding model. Thomson’s atomic theory implied that the atom is not indivisible as it was of smaller pieces - electrons and protons.
Thomson's event of discovering how electrons bond and his atomic theory of atoms not being divisible as it was of smaller pieces is important because it helps explain the structure of an atom and the negative vs. positive make-up of atoms and how far they can divide. Furthermore, Thomson helped discover the mass to charge ratio of the electron with the cathode ray.
In 1803 John Dalton made a new atomic theory that states atoms of a certain element have identical in size, mass, and other properties but atoms of different elements differ in these properties, and that atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds. His most important discovery was probably that atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged in chemical reactions. He also made a way to measure the weight of atoms, which makes him significant because it greatly helped later scientists when observing atoms.
This event was chosen because it was the first time that this atom (specifically a uranium atom) was able to be split in a process called fission. This was a very important event because it was the discovery of nuclear fission. This event was chosen over other events because it was very important in the process of learning how the splitting of atoms can happen, and it was discovered by a female scientist.
Maria Goeppert Mayer
This event was chosen because of the the important discovery she had about the nuclear shell model of an atom. Her model explained why certain numbers of nucleons in an atomic nucleus result in particularly stable configurations. This event was chosen over other events because she is one of two women to win a Nobel Prize in physics.
Using alpha particles, Chadwick discovered a neutral atomic particle with a mass close to a proton. Thus, he discovered the neutron.
This event was chosen because it provided a beginning to further research. also, it it gave a deeper understanding of the makeup of an atom.