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Aboriginal peoples in Canada

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Kevin Gärtner

on 10 September 2013

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Transcript of Aboriginal peoples in Canada

Aboriginal peoples in Canada
by Janos F. Kevin G. Jonas F.

Politics, law and legislation
The history of the native goes back to least 12,000 years
mostly "First Nation"
History is marked especially by strong adaptation to the natural environment
5 of 10 cultures developed in the today's area of Canada
„First Nations“ describes each indigenous tribe of Canada
more than 80 different languages
Five culture-areas
The oldest traces of human life found in Alaska
Relation with Northeast Asian cultures
From 2500 BC settlements in the West can be found (shell middens)
settlers were force to live in viable areas
->The Ottawa Valley is regarded as a center for the production of copper, a metal used for arrowheads
->coast is regarded as a center of trading and fishing
1000 BC the climate stabilization
Resulted in several periods that contributed to today's culture
Usually due to conditions in the environment
Woodland periods
The Canadian Shield (6000 BC from the Plano cultures)
Plains and Prairies
Plateau culture
Today's recognized native
First Nations
settled and established trade routes
500 BC – 1,000 CE
Communities developed with its own culture
descendants of Thule culture
trade routes with southern cultures
aggressive actions (defense)
descended from marriages between Europeans
dates to the mid-17th century
Hunters and gatherers
Hunted sea animals and fished
Harpoon, bow and arrow
Gathered different fruits
Lived as nomads
Kayaks & sledges with huskies
Lived in houses sealed with snow
Tents permeable to air
Living in the south of Canada
Hunters and gatherers
Earn money with their art
Drive with snowmobiles & motorboats
Main language english
->Most languages are dead
General categorization
Aboriginal people are ethnically divided into three groups:
First Nations: collects all "Indian" (as in Native American)  tribes living in Canada
used to collect all Aboriginal people, including Inuit and Metis
Inuit: Indigenous people originating from  the polar regions (e.g. Labrador) of Canada.
Metis: People with ancestors from both First Nations people and immigrants.
divided into Status and Non-Status Indians by law
Status Indians: object to Canadian Aboriginal politics, laws, legislation and projects
Aboriginal people are represented by various groups, ranging from small, tribal organization to the Assembly of  First Nations which is formed by the biggest leaders of First Nation groups.
Projects for first people
There are numerous programs for Ingenious women to help them against domestic violence and establish their role in First Nation society
First Nations people and reservoirs are supported financially
aid the educational system which is non-government driven
fund the First Nations ability to represent their interests to the Canadian government
Goal: Get First Nations educational, economical, political and social systems up to the Canadian standards.
Critics on Aboriginal Politics
nearly 50% of Canadians think that the Canadian policy on Aboriginal People needs to be reworked
reduction of financial support is highly criticized by First Nations leaders
claim: it proves more difficult to form a proper representation
Conservative positions claim First Nations are able to support themselves and are simply feeling entitled
Ongoing protests since December 2012
Based on a number of Bills that the new legislation introduced in October 2012
These bills severely cut into First Nations sovereignty
opposes resource exploration on First Nation land.
About 100 public protest from December 2012 to now.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aboriginal_peoples_in_Canada#Political_organization http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Idle_No_More
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