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Chapter 18: The West on the Eve of a New World Order
Transcript of Chapter 18: The West on the Eve of a New World Order
1. Towards a New Heaven and a New Earth: An Intellectual Revolution in the West
2. Economic Changes and the Social Order
3. Colonial Empires
Revolution in the
A. Latin America
European empires largely in the Americas.
Latin America is born as a multiracial society.
Economic activity included mining and large agricultural latifundia with peons.
Traded raw materials for manufactored goods.
Difficulty of European control due to distance meant the establishment of the Viceroy system and the utilization of mostly european subjects as bureaucrats.
Missionaries, conversion, the Catholic church and keeping Indians docile.
Church handled rudimentary structures of society.
B. British North America
1707 Great Britain created and the term British.
Increasing parlimentary control of the country.
Growing middle class favoring trade and empire.
William Pitt the Elder puts Canada and India into the empire.
Seven Years War ending in 1763 confirmed British supremacy.
British sought to tax American colonies to defend them and to seek recompensation for war expenses.
The Stamp Act.
Difference of opinion between Parliament and Colonial Assemblies.
1770s saw many crises and in 1776 independence was declared.
Number of European rivals assisted the colonists in order to seek revenge.
1781 Battle of Yorktown and 1783 Treaty of Paris.
Articles of Confederation 1781, Constitution between 1787-1789.
Constitution held ideas of checks and balances in three branches of government and other philosophes ideas.
Bill of Rights ultimately allowed adoption and it was essentially derived from the concept of natural rights.
The creation of United States was viewed as the fullfillment of the political dreams of the enlightenment.
17th century Scientific Revolution challenged dominant ideas of time based in antiquity and religion.
Slow but sure advance and acceptance by society of ideas created during this period.
Led into the 18th century Age of Enlightenment.
Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Christianity; the trinity of the Ptolemaic/Geocentric theory of the universe.
The universe was considered composed of concentric circles with the earth as an unmoving center.
The planets were considered perfect crystalline structures and heaven was considered beyond the 10th sphere.
Nicolaus Copernicus and his heliocentric view of the universe.
Importantly explained the moving sun though still thought in terms of circles.
Johannes Kepler confirmed theory and added elliptical orbits.
Galileo Galilei with his telescope proves planets are similar to Earth.
Significant problems with these theories and the Catholic Church.
Isaac Newton took all previous theories and combined them in his three laws of motion.
Idea of gravitation.
This idea of the world machine by Newton lasted until the 20th century.
Why Europe and not China?
Competitive nature, conquest of nature, best and brightest in other fields, ideological differences, state power and money, etc.
Enlightenment was intellectuals advancing the ideas of the Scientific Revolution. Key word Reason.
"All institutions and all systems of thought were subject to the rational, scientific way of thinking if people would only free themselves from the shackles of the past, worthless traditions, especially religious ones."
Isaac Newton and John Locke thought people were Tabula Rasa and are capable of being molded as ideas are not innate.
Radical population inceases: 1700 - 120 million, 1750 - 140 million, 1790 - 190 million.
More plentiful food and American crops led to increases.
Cottage industry system develops.
Large gains in world trade.
Gold/Silver from the Americas to Europe and then to China.
Plantation system in the Americas.
France and England overshadows rest by 1700 but eventually England wins out.
Society still divided into traditional estates.
Peasants 85% and largely free in the west but still serfs in the east.
Nobles, 2-3 %, exempt from taxes and dominant in government, military, etc.
Townspeople small but important and growing group.
London and Paris become large cities.
Cities and town governments consisted of Patricians, Rentiers, lower middle class artisans etc., and then laborers.
The Philosophes were predominantly French or French influenced.
Three French giants.
Montesquieu wrote The Spirit of Laws which advocated a separation of powers (checks and balances).
Voltaire advocated religious toleration.
Satire in Candide, criticism of religion, and deism.
Diderot attacked religion and created an encyclopedia of knowledge.
Creation of the social sciences.
Adam Smith and laissez-faire economics.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and advocation of freedom by undermining inequality and education.
Mary Wollstonecraft and the birth of european feminism using Rousseau's ideas.
Culture noticed a shift from Baroque to Rococo which emphasized grace and charm.
The increasing blend of high and low cultures.
Popular culture and its functions.
4. Toward a New Political Order and Global Conflict
5. The French Revolution
6. The Age of Napoleon
Concept of Natural Rights.
Needed enlightened leadership who protected and fostered reforms.
Ideas preferred reforms from above rather than below.
Engendered enlightened absolutism.
Continuing existence of doubts to the efficacy of enlightened absolutism.
Prussia under Frederick II, the Great.
Sparta of Central Europe.
Employment of Voltaire.
Limited reforms such as freedom of the press, abolishment of the death penality for political crimes, religious tolerance, Jewish emancipation, etc.
Overall the reforms were of a limited nature as the structure of the state remained the same.
Austria under Joseph II.
Multiethnic, diverse empire.
Abolishment of serfdom, religious toleration and equality, etc.
Much unrest with reforms amongst the elite and many were overturned afterwards.
Russia under Catherine the Great.
Few actual reforms though under the influence of Diderot.
After peasant rebellions under her reign, the few reforms were overturned.
Most notable was the tremendous expansion under Catherine.
Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century between Austria, Prussia, and Russia.
Overall many reforms were attempted, some successfully though reality prevented more and ultimately their effects were questionable.
Nonetheless this did pave the path for the French Revolution and this event would change things.
During this century, there was an increasing number of wars and conflicts between the more powerful states.
Seven Years War was the most notable as a worldwide conflict.
Originally Prussia versus the world but later the British joined them to fight the British.
British victories led to consolidation of their power in Canada and India.
French losses meant the end of empire.
Chapter 18: The West on the Eve of a New World Order
In 1789 the complex, radical French Revolution began.
Population of France was 27 million and divided into three traditional estates under the ancien regime.
1st Estate was the clergy, owned 10% of the land, were exempt from taxes, had divided interests.
2nd Estate was the aristocracy, owned 35-40% of the land, tax exempt and held most positions of power.
3rd Estate was the remaining 75-80% of the population, not tax exempt.
Other groups were excluded but owned 25% of the land and represented 10% of the population.
Great unrest amongst large segments of the population with the political structure of the country.
During the 1780s there was significant problems such as bad harvests, economic depression, inflation, unemployment, and almost half the population was poor.
Government bankrupcy was likely and so Louis XVI had to call the Estates-General for the first time since 1614.
Originally the estates agreed for double representation for the 3rd estate, 600 delegates instead of 300.
Disputes over voting, single vote by estate or vote by head.
The 3rd Estate unilaterally declares itself the National Assembly and the King decides to dissolve it by force.
July 14th, the Bastille is stormed and destroyed, the army rebels and royal authority quickly collapses.
Subsequent rebellions commence throughout the kingdom.
Issuing of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen recognizes the natural rights of men.
Very quickly the church becomes a revolutionary target to be reformed by all means necessary.
In 1791 a Legislative Assembly is formed with a constitutional monarchy.
At the same time most semblances of the old order are being destroyed.
In late 1791 the King tries to flee but is captured and the first European powers then begin to intervene in order to contain the revolution.
As a result of foreign invasions in 1792, the Assembly decides to guillotine the King and declare universal suffrage for all.
Later in the year the Republic is established, known as the commune, and becomes increasingly radical.
Ongoing rebellions and counterrebellions throughout the country.
Most of Europe is involved in military action against the French at this time.
As a result of these difficulties the Committee of Public Safety is formed under Maximilien Robespierre to establish order in the country.
Levy-en-masse likewise occurres to deal with foreign invasions.
This large forces began to push out the invaders and even start to occupy territory outside of France bringing the revolution into new locations.
The new army represented a new kind of nationalism and the end of older dynastic, professional style armies.
Under the Committee of Public Safety, 16,000 are guillotined in nine months.
Overseas the Haitian revolution under Toussaint L'ouverture begins in 1791 where slaves take over the colony and then defeat all attempts to reassert European authority.
In 1804 Haiti officially becomes independent.
In 1794 slavery is abolished throughout the French empire but is eventually reinstated.
Also in the same year, the Terror becomes less necessary and Robespierre is executed.
Likewise the Radical phases of the revolution comes to an end and a directory of five takes over the leadership of the country between 1794-1799 but is constantly disputed by many others.
Napoleon dominated France from 1799-1815.
Born in Corsica, the revolution aided his military career.
He was a brigader general by 1794 and won a number of victories in Italy.
His attack on Egypt in 1799 failed but nonetheless he was able to successfully take over the government upon his return.
Consulate was formed with Napoleon first as consul, then consul for life, and finally in 1804 Emperor.
In 1801 made peace with the Church.
Created the Napoleonic/Civil Code which protected many rights gained through the revolutionary period.
It did however undo women's gains.
Organized a strong bureaucracy based on merit not birth.
Also created a new aristocracy and increasingly ruled France autocratically.
The French Empire under Napoleon seldom saw peace, essentially a period of non-stop war until 1815.
Battle of Austerlitz, 1805.
1807-1812 Napoleon was the master of Europe with most places under his control or allied to him.
Napoleon spread the core values of the revolution throughout Europe, destroying the old order and having talent and equality as the twin pillars of his rule.
Empire lasted only briefly though as Britian could not be defeated. 1805 Battle of Trafalgar.
Continental System as a means to undermine the British but essentially caused more resistance to the French.
Massive uprising in Spain, large numbers of troops needed to fight the guerilla war there.
In 1812 Napoleon decided to invade Russia.
600,000 troops invaded and only 40,000 made it back after the Russians burnt down Moscow to ensure that the French had no shelter from the Russian winter.
The defeat in Russia led to a constant retreat back to the borders of France as a number of allies deserted and other locations rose in rebellion.
In 1814 Paris was captured, Napoleon abdicated the throne and was exiled to the island of Elba.
In turn the Bourbons returned to France and Louis XVIII took over the monarchy.
Napoleon eventually escapes and comes back as Emperor for 100 days in 1815.
At the Battle of Waterloo he is decisively defeated and subsequently exiled again but this time to St. Helena.
He died shortly thereafter in circumstances that still appear suspicious.
The period of the French Revolution and the reign of Napoleon resulted in a massive deviation in the pattern of history and meant that European and world societies would continue to change radically in the following centuries.