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Pre World War II, KD, JK

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Katelyn Dowling

on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Pre World War II, KD, JK

1931
Pre - World War 2
Adolf Hitler
Italian Invasion of Ethiopia
When Benito Mussolini came to power he wanted to take over Ethiopia. He thought that in doing so he was helping Italy's reputation and that having this extra land would help with the overpopulation problem. Once a treaty was signed between Italy and Ethiopia, Italy set up camp at oasis Walwal which is on the boarder of Ethiopian territory. When Italians were told to leave they didn't. Haile Selassie (Ethiopia's president) asked for help from the League of Nations. The League of Nations only banned arm sales to either side. That only made things worse for Ethiopia because they were ill equipped while Italy was already well equipped. On October 3, 1935 Italy attacked Ethiopia with ammunition, weaponry and other supplies. Ethiopia then remained under Italian control.
Neutrality Act of 1935
The Neutrality act was signed by FDR who was for isolationism. This act provided arms embargo to all nations, prohibited American ships from carrying war material to a belligerent nation and recommended warning American citizens from embarking on belligerent ships.
System of Government: Nazi - member of the National Socialist German Worker's party. Shows racism and brutality. Established as a superior force as a dominant world power. Thrived on crisis and chaos.
Nazi Flag
Born in Austria on April 20th 1889, Died April 30th 1945
Sources: Dictionary.com, "Adolf Hitler." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Student Resources in Context. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.
Adolf was a struggling artist, was often told that his pieces were lacking. He was arrested for being "unfit for the army" after his physical. But he volunteered at World War 1 and showed his bravery. He was determined to bring Germany back after the news of their lose while he was in the hospital. He stated Germany had been "stabbed in the back" rather than defeated. He gathered fellow army men to create a party and he was the leader. His Nazi party soon became an undisputed dictatorship. Russian people resisted fiercly once they realized what he was doing was genocide. He then fled, wrote a will (blamed all but himself) and committed suicide.
Hideki Tojo
Joseph Stalin
system of government: Soviet- a communist party, believed in equality, everybody worked for the state, governed as a single-party state besides Communist Parties
System of Government: Japanese Imperialism, Prime minister of Japan
Born in Tokyo on December 30, 1884, Died December 23rd 1948
Soviet Flag
Japanese Flag
Tojo started out at lieutenant general, then appointed to chief of staff to help ready the japanese army when the war broke out with the Soviet Union. Tojo says "to annihilate this enemy and to establish a stable new order in East Asia, the nation must necessarily anticipate a long war." The army, navy and emperor gave considerable power to Tojo. Early 1944 the batter turned drastically on Japan. Tojo's Cabinet forced him to retirement. He tried to shoot himself but was put in prison after he recovered. He was sentenced to death by hanging.
Sources: "Hideki Tojo." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Student Resources in Context. Web. 27 Mar. 2014.
Benito Mussolini
Born July 29, 1883 in Predappio, Italy, Died April 28, 1945
State of Government: Italian Fascism (Italian dictator) He founded the Fascist movement.
Italian flag
Joseph Stalin was a troubled young man who got expelled from school and became known for bank robberies and raids on money transports. Because the Central Committee was in need for funds Joseph was co-opted with them. But he gained power within that party and started slowly kicking his associates out in order to gain full control.
His father played a big role on his life. He was a heavy drinker, and unfaithful to his wife multiple times. In his early life he was neglected, and a teacher described his personality as "almost savage". He was kicked out of school for stabbing other kids with pens, even knifed his girlfriend. He founded a Pro-war magazine, war was then started, while he was there he was hurt in a grenade accident and released from the war. Mussolini was elected into parliament, then appointed youngest prime minister ever. He had much fame. He allied closely with Germany. He said to bring a "lightning war" (his words) to Britain and France. He then had several humiliating losses. He was gunned down by communist guerillas.
Born in Gori, Georgia on December 21, 1879 died on March 5, 1953
Source Citation
"Joseph Stalin." UXL Biographies. Detroit: U*X*L, 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.
"I trust no one, not even myself."
- Joseph Stalin

"Benito Mussolini." DISCovering Biography. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 28 Mar. 2014.
Japanese invasion of Manchuria
September 18 1931
"Japan Withdraws from the League of Nations, February 24, 1933." Historic World Events. Detroit: Gale, 2012. Student Resources in Context. Web. 29 Mar. 2014.
On September 18 1931 there was an explosion at the South Manchurian railroad which was owned by Japan. The Kwangtung army who were placed at the railroad to protect railroad intervention decided to overrun all the Chinese troops in the area without authorization from the civilian government. Within a week the Kwangtung army controlled most of Manchuria. They declared the area as an independent state.
"Italy Invades Ethiopia: 1935–1936." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History. Ed. Jennifer Stock. Vol. 1: Africa. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2013. Student Resources in Context. Web. 29 Mar. 2014.
October 3, 1935
"Neutrality Acts Passed, 1935-1939." DISCovering U.S. History. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 29 Mar. 2014.
August 31, 1935
German involvement in the Spanish Civil War
July 1936
German reoccupation of Rhineland
March 7, 1936
Japanese invasion of China
July, 8, 1937
Japan declared war on China after a clash began between japanese and chinese soldiers. Japan forced more than 30 million chinese to flee their homes. Japan brought demoralizing sense of political, cultural and psychological dislocation in chinese history. More than 300,000 people were killed in one city over a 6 week time period. There was a mass shooting between japan and china near the Marco Polo bridge. It was not planned but both sent in reinforcements.
During the Spanish civil war Germans intervened to help the Republicans. Using the Condor Legion which was a German combat unit formed in Spain that supplied Republicans with bombers, bombs and pilots.
"Air Bombardment." Gale Encyclopedia of World History: War. Detroit: Gale, 2009. Student Resources in Context. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.
Massacre of Nanking
Japan started to look down on China. The rape of the Nanking occurred over several weeks from late 1937 into early 1938. The Japanese army ran riot through the streets of the nationalist chinese capital. They attacked cities and villages on their way to Nanking (Nanjing). Japanese troops were admitted to kill, loot, rape, and burn. All prisoners were to be executed. 70,000 chinese troops tried to escape but could not. Death Toll: 300,000
Japanese Military Campaigns in China, July 7, 1937-August, 1945." DISCovering World History. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014
"Rape of the Nanking"
The Rape of Nanking." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: War. Detroit: Gale, 2009. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
December, 9, 1937
"Japan Captures Nanjing, December, 1937-February, 1938." Historic World Events. Detroit: Gale, 2012. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.


Neutrality Act of 1937
April 1937
The people still wanted to be able to trade with Europe even in warfare. But only under Cash and Carry formula. Roosevelt liked this plan because he knew it would help the nation get control of the sea while still being neutral.
"Neutrality Acts Passed, 1935-1939." DISCovering U.S. History. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
Panay Incident
December, 12, 1937
Yamamoto Isoroku." Historic World Leaders. Gale, 1994. Biography in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
Japanese planes bombed the Panay a gun boat that was just sailing china's Yangste river. 3 americans were killed and 43 were injured. Yagamoto apologized.
FDR's Quarantine Speech
October, 1937
Anschluss
Austria-Hungarian empire desinigrated in 1918. They became the federal republic of Austria. But they lost their nationalistic identity. Germany and Austria had played around with the idea of Anschluss, also known as a union with Germany. Initially when Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933 most austrians were against the idea of anschluss because that would mean they would be a union under Nazism. Hitler integrated austrian nazis into the austrian government through negotiations. eventually he replaced the austrian leaders with his own. Hitler inserted the german military into Austria on March 12, 1988 too "restore order". Anschluss was put in place.
February, 12, - April, 10, 1938
"The Anschluss ( Germany absorbs austria), February 12, 1938-April 10 "Historic World Facts. Detroit: Gale, 2014. Student Rescources in context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
1935
1936
1937
1938
German annex of the Sudetenland
After the successful Anschluss of Austria Hitler focused on the Sudetenland which was a strip of land that belonged to Czechoslovakia, who's people spoke german. British prime minister thought that appeasing Hitler would avoid war, so he agreed at the munich conference to give Hitler the Sudetenland. So Hitler entered Sudetenland which was a part of Czechoslovakia on October 10th 1938.
October, 10, 1938
German annex of Czechoslovakia
With the annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland and the possession of its strong factories, Czechoslovakia was at the mercy of Germany. On March 13th 1939 the german military moved into Prague then Bohemia and then Moravia. Czechoslovakia became a fragmented country, and ceased to exist.
Neville Chamberlain's "Peace of Our Time" pledge
Neville Chamerlain was Great Britain's prime minister during World War II . On September 30, 1938 Chamberlain made a pledge. This pledge was an appeasement which was a foreign policy stating that Great Britain wouldn't challenge Adolf Hitler's attempt to takeover Czechoslovakia. This appeasement was an attempt to maintain peace between Germany and neighboring countries that way the war could be adverted.
"The Munich Pact." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: War. Detroit: Gale, 2009. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
March, 13, 1939
"The Munich Pact." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. History: War. Detroit: Gale, 2009. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
1939
Pact of Steel
May 22, 1939
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
June 22, 1939
French-British declaration
September 3, 1939
German-Soviet Invasion of Poland
September 30, 1938
Siracusa, Joseph M. "The Munich Analogy." Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. Ed. Richard Dean Burns, Alexander DeConde, and Fredrik Logevall. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
"Neville Chamberlain." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit: Gale, 1998. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
"From left are Neville Chamberlain, Edouard Daladier, Adolf Hitler, and Benito Mussolini at the..." World War II Reference Library. Ed. Barbara C. Bigelow, et al. Vol. 3: Biographies. Detroit: UXL, 1999. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
The Pact of steel was alliance between Germany and Italy, signed by Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini. This Pact formalized the Rome-Berlin Axis agreement. This Pact also linked Germany and Italy both militarily and politically.
"Benito Mussolini." UXL Biographies. Detroit: U*X*L, 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
This was a failed Non aggression Pact. This pact cleared Adolf Hitler from about its Eastern fronts. This made Adolf Hitler invade the West. Hitler invaded Poland and the USSR.
"Commentary on Molotov-Ribbentrop Non-Aggression Pact, 1939." The Cold War. Ed. Walter Hixson. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2000. American Journey. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
In August of 1939, Adolf Hitler signed a nonaggression pact with the Soviets. This Pact was partitioned that Poland was to be shared between Germany and Russia. This enabled Hitler to plan his attack on Poland without the fear of Soviet interference. By September 1, 1939 Poland was attacked.
September 1,1939
"Germany Invades Poland: September 1, 1939." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History. Ed. Jennifer Stock. Vol. 4: Europe. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2013. Student Resources in Context. Web. 31 Mar. 2014.
Britain and France declare war on Germany because they were allies of Poland which had recently been invaded by Hitler and his men. Winston Churchill an English prime minister made many speeches and encouraged the people of Great Britain to stay determined.
"We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing-grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender."
-Winston Churchill
Neutrality Act of 1939
Roosevelt wanted Great Britain and France to be able to buy anything from the U. S on a cash-and-carry basis. On September 21 1939 congress met in special session at the request of the president to consider revision to the neutrality laws. On November 4th 1939 he signed the bill which would make the united states the arsenal of democracy.
September 21, 1939
"Neutrality Acts Passed, 1935-1939." DISCovering U.S. History. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014
Soviet Invasion of Finland
November, 1939
While Russia was on top taking over and basically swallowing areas surrounding they stormed into Finland demanding land. In the night Finland fought back but after the 105 days they were unsuccessful and had to surrender 10% of their territory.
"The Winter War: Russia's Invasion of Finland, 1939-1940." Publishers Weekly 21 Apr. 2008: 47. Biography in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
The Battle of Britain
1940
Overy, Richard. "The many and the few: seventy years after the Battle of Britain, Richard Overy looks behind the myth of a vulnerable island defended by a small band of fighter pilots to give due credit to the courage of the redoubtable civilian population." History Today 60.9 (2010): 24+. Biography in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014
July-October , 1940
Britain was not powerless in 1940, They had the world's largest navy, supported by a huge fleet. British civilians were hit hardest over 27,000 casualties. Prime minister Winston Church-Hill said "we shall never surrender". Germany ordered the Louftwaffe (air force) to begin bombing London and Britain in July through October. But Germany's air force met fierce resistance from the royal air force and Germany had to post pone their invasion of Britain.
Japanese invasion of French-Indochina
The Japanese army invaded French-Indochina in early 1940 to better fight the chinese resistance army. With the german invasion of France, Germany influenced France to allow Japan to occupy French Indochina. This gave Japan the right to fully occupy them.
German invasion of Denmark/Norway
April, 9, 1940
German invasion of France
After the evacuation at Dunkirk, the germans continued their invasion of France. The french only resisted a little and Paris fell to the Germans on June 14th 1940. Germany now occupied western Europe with the exception of Great Britain.
September 2, 1940
German invasion of the low countries
May 1940
In May 1940, Hitler's troops easily swept through Luxembourg, the Netherlands (Holland) and Belgium. This left only France unoccupied by Germany. With this conquest Hitler occupied all of western Europe with only France and Great Britain left to go.
"Germany Invades Poland: September 1, 1939." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History. Ed. Jennifer Stock. Vol. 4: Europe. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2013. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Evacuation at Dunkirk
May 26th, through June 4th 1940
With Germany's capture of the low countries. 330,000 troops from Britain, France, Belgium and the Netherlands retreated to the harbor at Dunkirk France. Their only escape was to Great Britain across the English channel. Hitler decided too send air force to destroy them now that they were trapped. A call went out to all navy ships, small private boats and help from any citizens to rescue the troops from Dunkirk. Many private boats ferried the troops to safety across the English channel.
"Germany Invades Poland: September 1, 1939." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History. Ed. Jennifer Stock. Vol. 4: Europe. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2013. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Germany invaded Denmark and Norway. Denmark surrendered right away without a fight. The germans attacked Norway with paratroopers and navy ships. Norway's army fought back heavily but retreated to the North. The king of Norway refused to surrender to the Nazi's and fled to England before the germans caught him. After this Norway surrendered to the germans on June 10th 1940.
On September of 1940, the U.S and Great Britain agreed to the transfer of warships to the Royal Naval in exchange for land. Through this agreement the U.S acquired, parts of Newfoundland, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Trinidad, St. Lucia, Antigua and British Guiana.
"Battle of Britain, 1940-1941." DISCovering World History. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
"Battle of Britain, 1940-1941." DISCovering World History. Detroit: Gale, 2003. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
"The Lexington." The American Revolution. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 2010. American Journey. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
"Vidkin Quisling." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Vol. 20. Detroit: Gale, 2000. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
German Invasion of Soviet Russia
Russia was invaded by Germany on June 22, 1941 under the codename "Operation Barbarossa". Invading prime land in within the Soviet Borders had been Hitler's goal since the 1920's. Hitler invaded the Soviets two years after the signing of the Nonaggression Pact that had been signed between the two when Germany wanted to invade Poland.
June, 14, 1940
Selective Service Act
Arc de triumph, Paris
This act was made to benefit the war. This act stated that all men between the ages of 18-25 had to be drafter for the war.
September 16, 1940
Destroyers for Bases Deal
"Military Draft." UXL Encyclopedia of U.S. History. Sonia Benson, Daniel E. Brannen, Jr., and Rebecca Valentine. Vol. 5. Detroit: UXL, 2009. 1003-1006. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
"Vidkin Quisling." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Vol. 20. Detroit: Gale, 2000. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
June - September 1940
Cochinchina Becomes a French Colony: 1862." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History. Ed. Jennifer Stock. Vol. 2: Asia and Oceania. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2013. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014
"Germany Invades Poland: September 1, 1939." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History. Ed. Jennifer Stock. Vol. 4: Europe. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2013. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
"Germany Invades Poland: September 1, 1939." Global Events: Milestone Events Throughout History. Ed. Jennifer Stock. Vol. 4: Europe. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2013. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
June 22, 1941
1941
Embargo on Raw Materials to Japan.
When the diplomatic relationship between the U.S and Japan was no longer going well, The U.S put an embargo on shipments to Japan. The U.S put an embargo on shipments such as oil and steel.
"Enemy Aliens: Japanese Americans in World War II." The Asian-American Experience. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media, 1999. American Journey. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Arming of Merchant Ships
Before the U.S entered the World War, German ships had attacked U.S ships in the Atlantic. In response to this Congress authorized armed guards aboard merchant ships.
Lend-Lease
1941
July 26, 1941
President Franklin Roosevelt made a speech in Chicago promising to quarantine aggressor nations. This was his way of going beyond neutrality. To make it hard for nations like Germany and Japan from invading their neighbor countries.
Colby, Elbridge. "World War II." Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 8. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 543-552. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Atlantic Charter
August 14, 1941
U.S Navy Escort of Merchant ships
The Lend Lease act gave the president power to sell, transfer, lend, or lease goods (food, tanks, airplanes, weapons) that other allies would need. Allied nations gave the U.S troops $8 billion dollars in aid. But Harry Truman ended the program in 1945.
"Lend Lease Act." Gale Encyclopedia of U.S. Economic History. Ed. Thomas Carson and Mary Bonk. Detroit: Gale, 1999. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
November 13, 1941
Ryan, Paul B. "Merchantmen, Armed." Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 5. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 321-322. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
Pre-November 1941
Before November 1941 America was neutral in the war. President Franklin Roosevelt pledged to the allies "all aid short of war." This involved U.S naval escorts of merchant supply ships to protect against German U-boat torpedo attacks in the Atlantic. This was called "The Battle of the Atlantic."
The Atlantic Charter was a policy statement that set goals for the post world war. This statement called for no more territorial changes against the will of the people,restoration of self government, and disarmament of aggressor nations
Adams, Henry H. "Atlantic, Battle of the." Dictionary of American History. Ed. Stanley I. Kutler. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003. 352-353. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 1 Apr. 2014
Wilson, Theodore A. "Summit Conferences." Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy. Ed. Richard Dean Burns, Alexander DeConde, and Fredrik Logevall. 2nd ed. Vol. 3. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2002. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
"American Intervention Short of War, September, 1939-December, 1941." DISCovering U.S. History. Detroit: Gale, 1997. Student Resources in Context. Web. 1 Apr. 2014.
On March 7, 1936 German troops invade Rhineland even though it had been under French control since World War I.
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