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Humanism in Education
Transcript of Humanism in Education
For humanism to work in education, it must first recognize man's primal instincts and urges. Foundations of
Humanism in Education Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Predating humanist psychology, Italian doctor and educator Maria Montessori developed her own method for education that emphasized freedom for students in a prepared environment. Maria Montessori
and the Montessori Method By providing a learning environment that emphasized individual freedom, Montessori allowed students to explore their interests unimpeded by artificial order, arbitrary rules, and prescribed standards. Humanism is a multi-tendency term that encompasses perspectives from many areas including philosophy, religion, political theory, and psychology. Humanism seeks to emphasize the freedom of individuals. If you're having trouble understanding humanism, think about what isn't humanism - what dehumanizes someone or is inhumane. What is Humanism? Let's start by discussing humanism as a philosophy for living and its relationship to religion. Humanism as a philosophy
and a religion Secular Humanism is a philosophy that emphasizes a belief in humanity and in the humanity of others. Humanist psychologists base their analysis and interpretation of human behavior on the same foundations as humanist philosophers.
Humanist psychologists seek to examine what causes interruptions or discrepancies in human behavior by analyzing the changes in physical or external environments and how the subject responds to those changes.
Humanist psychologists want to understand what motivates human behavior and human action. Humanist Psychology Is hierarchy part of our natural order?
What does the state desire or require of education?
Can humanism accomplish those goals? Maslow identified these five categories of needs which must be satisfied in ascending order for individuals to achieve the next need.
For example, if you are hungry or you don't feel safe, you won't be able to express yourself honestly
without first satisfying your more basic needs. Emilia, an Italian like Montessori, innovated his own brand of education similar to "constructivism".
Like Montessori, Emilia emphasized a "hands-on" approach to education that allowed students to be more self-reliant.
Children should have control over their learning to some extent and should be encouraged to develop learning relationships with other children. Reggio Emilia Approach Furthering the emphasis on self-reliance, free schools were developed outside the norm of progressive or public schools in the early 20th Century.
These schools operate without the structure or funding of public schools. Their decentralized nature restricts the hierarchical structure of society from clouding the learning experience.
A synonym for these schools is anarchist free schools. They distinguish themselves from democratic education by asserting the needs of the individual over the collective. Free Schools Modern Humanist Movements Late 20th Century movements that emphasize a humanist approach to education are homeschooling, deschooling, and unschooling. These movements can be associated with religious beliefs or political and philosophical reasons.
The concepts of deschooling and unschooling while similar to homeschooling are not necessarily related to the social or religious concerns commonly associated with homeschooling. Unschooling provides an alternative to traditional education. The motivation to unschool is primarily political and social. Parents of unschooled children follow the ideas of non-violent parenting and often take part in homesteading or individualist movements.
The Unschooling movement reflects the ideas of a Montessori education and anarchist free schools. Children are brought up to be self-sufficient in visceral, "hands-on" environments.
Critics assert that students will not learn common social norms or skills that translate into the labor force or society's values. Unschooling,
and the Homesteading Movement "Public schools are neither public nor schools." - Sheldon Richman
“One significant role of the state in the national education systems of the world is to perpetuate social and economic injustice." - Colin Ward Is hierarchy part of natural order?
What are the goals of the state with respect to education?
Can humanism accomplish these goals? Back to our questions... Self discovery and reliance
Prepared learning environments
Non-violent discipline and punishment
Individual freedom Humanist Values One more question... Can humanism flourish in a state-controlled educational system? Arkansas River Valley Montessori School
Chenal Valley Montessori School
Conway Montessori School
Little Rock Montessori School
Walnut Farm Montessori Montessori Schools
in Arkansas The Absorbent Mind (1949) Montessori developed her theory of the four planes. First plane: 0 to 6 years. The "absorbent mind" plane.
Second plane: 6 to 12 years. "Herd instinct" plane. Third plane: 12 to 18 years. "Identity" plane.
Fourth plane: 18 to 24 years. "Cultural embrace" plane. Although there is no official accreditation body, the American Montessori Society and the Association Montessori Internationale provide resources and program guidelines for schools to follow. http://www.lrmontessori.org/faqs.html
http://www.arvmontessori.org/ Montessori School links Facebook page links https://www.facebook.com/homeschoolingunschooling?ref=stream
http://www.secularhumanism.org/ Sources https://www.facebook.com/pages/Secular-Humanist/108368815860527?rf=108021859225198 Pictures Wikipedia