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Transcript of sedimentary cycle
There are three types of weathering, physical, chemical and biological. Physical Weathering 1. Weathering The Sedimentary Process 2. Erosion & Transport 3. Deposition 4. Burial & Compaction 5. Deformation & Metamorphism 6. Uplift 7. Melting 8. Crystallization of Magma the class of processes that causes the disintegration of rocks without chemical change can occur due to temperature, pressure, frost (also known as decomposition or decay) is the breakdown of rock (weathering) by chemical mechanisms, the most important ones being carbonation, hydration, hydrolysis, oxidation, and ion exchange in solution Chemical Weathering changes the composition of the rock material toward surface minerals, such as clays. It attacks minerals that are relatively unstable in surface conditions, such as the primary minerals of igneous rocks like basalt, granite or peridotite caused by the activities of living organisms – for example, the growth of roots or the burrowing of animals
tree roots are probably the most significant agents of biological weathering as they are capable of prising apart rocks by growing into cracks and joints
plants also give off organic acids that help to break down rocks chemically Biological Weathering Step 2: Erosion and Transport Erosion is the process by which soil and rock particles are worn away and moved elsewhere by wind, water or ice. Weathering involves no moving agent of transport.
Transport refers to the cycle processes by which the sediment is moved along – for example, pebbles rolled along a river-bed or sea shore, sand grains whipped up by the wind, salts carried in solution Step 3: Deposition Deposition is the laying down of sediment carried by wind, water, or ice. Sediment can be transported as pebbles, sand & mud, or as salts dissolved in water.
Salts may later be deposited by organic activity (e.g. as sea-shells) or by evaporation As layers are piled one upon another, the sediments beneath are buried, sometimes by hundreds of metres of sediment above. The weight of these layers compacts (squashes down) the sediment grains.
Minerals deposited from water in the spaces between the sediment grains gradually cements them together. Step 4: Burial and Compaction The Earth’s crust is slowly moving. Did you know that the Atlantic Ocean is getting wider at about the rate your fingernails grow, or that India is barging its way slowly northward into the continent of Asia?
The huge forces that move continents stretch and squash parts of the Earth’s crust., generating earthquakes and building mountains. They cause rocks near the surface to be fractured and faulted.
At greater depth, the heat and pressure involved can cause folding and/or metamorphism Step 5: Deformation and Metamorphism Step 6: Uplift the key to the rock cycle, as it allows us to see rocks that were once deeply buried beneath the surface
a rise of land to a higher elevation (as in the process of mountain building) a physical process that results in the phase transition of a substance from a solid to a liquid.
The internal energy of a substance is increased, typically by the application of heat or pressure, resulting in a rise of its temperature to the melting point, at which the rigid ordering of molecular entities in the solid breaks down to a less-ordered state and the solid liquefies Step 7: Melting When magma cools, crystals form because the solution is super-saturated with respect to some minerals.
If the magma cools quickly, the crystals do not have much time to form, so they are very small.
If the magma cools slowly, then the crystals have enough time to grow and become large. Step 8: Crystallization of Magma Rock type 1: IGNEOUS Rocks in the Sedimentary Cycle are created when molten material such as magma (within the Earth) or lava (on the surface) cools and hardens.
the hot material crystallizes into different minerals; properties and sizes of the various crystals depend on the magma's composition and its rate of cooling. examples:
Rhyolite Rock Type 2: SEDIMENTARY are made up of sediments eroded from igneous, metamorphic, other sedimentary rocks, and even the remains of dead plants and animals.
These materials are deposited in layers, or strata, and then are squeezed and compressed into rock.
Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks examples:
Gypsum Rock Type 3: METAMORPHIC are produced when sedimentary or igneous rocks are transformed by heat and/or pressure.
The word "metamorphic" comes from the Greek language, which means "to change form." examples: