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Soledad Mori

on 30 May 2015

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Transcript of Ireland

Division between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

In the Republic of Ireland, Irish is the first official language and English is a second official language. 2% of the population use Irish.

In Northern Ireland, the official languages are: English, Irish and Ulster Scots. like the Republic of Ireland, the majority of the population uses English

History of

500-150 B.C.
The Celts arrive and settle in Ireland
Norman mercenaries invaded Ireland. The English
laid roots on Ireland.
Imposition of the English law

New towns

Under the rule of Henry VIII
Irish local chiefs who tried to resist the English rule were violently put down.
King Henry VIII is acknowledged as King of Ireland by the English people living in Ireland.

During the First Decades of the XVII Century

Britain's King James I sends thousands of Protestant English farmers and Presbyterian Scots and Welsh to Ireland to take over land owned by Catholic farmers, mostly in the north.
The Plantation scheme is applied in Ireland.

Origin of
Irish Gaelic
or Irish

432 A.D.
Saint Patrick Arrives.

Christianization of

New laws which forbade Catholics to vote, own land or practice their religion were enacted. Such laws remained in effect until 1829.
1803 Act of Union
The whole of Ireland becomes part of the United Kingdom.

"The United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland"

The Great Famine in Ireland



Decrease of population
Anglo-Irish War


Northern Ireland Republic of Ireland
(Ulster) (Irish Free State)
(1927)"The United
of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland"

Gaelic is restored in the
Republic of Ireland

Gaelic becomes a national language

Gaelic is promoted in the educational system
The Troubles Northern Ireland

Nationalists Unionists

Mostly Catholics Mostly Protestants

They were in favour They were loyal to
of being part of the Great Britain
Republic of Ireland

Good Friday Agreement

The European Union recognizes Irish as
One of the official languages

English in

Formularies instead of formalities
Declivity instead of Proclivity
instead of
Rosy dandrums
instead of
Words and expressions that have special meanings in Irish
Bold (poorly behaved)
Gas (funny) You´re a gas man
Grand (fine)
I´m grand.
Neck (nerve)
you have some neck
Only (absolutely) This is only delicious.

wagon (a disagreeable woman)
Chalk and cheese (night and day) different as chalk and cheese

Zonks (ages) I haven´t seen you in zonks (mostly in Dublin)

On me tot (on my own) I don´t want to be left behind on me tot

Tasty (a job well done)
Cheers (hello, goodbye, thank you)

Lexico-Semantic Aspect
Words that are currently used in English, but came
from Irish

Vowel Sounds
Use of progressive aspect with the imperative mood

use of singular forms with plural subjects
The stairs is too deep for the patients
There was fifteen people there.

Let can be used with you
let you sit down.

The present simple shares uses with the present perfect.
I know him for more than six years now

Reduction of number of verb forms
Seen and done as preterite, went as past participle, also found with some other verbs like come and use.
I wonder why he done that.
I haven’t went there for a long time now.
She come up to see her aunt when she was dyin’.

Use of progressive aspect with stative verbs (epecially Southern Irish)
1. And can be used with the meaning of: although, while, when.

2. Till can be used with the meaning of "in order that"
Cleft sentence
It was very well that he looked
1.Double Plural
the addition of /əz/ to existing plurals which end in -s.

2.Nouns indicating time and measure are not inflected for plural.
1. The second person singular takes two distinct forms:
ye, ya (singular)
youse, yes (plural)

2. Speakers of Irish English dialects in the North (including Ulster Scots) and South tend to avoid the use of Wh-relative pronouns. That, and and zero are employed more often.

3. Reflexive pronouns
emphatic form of the nominative
It is myself that wrote the letter
unbound reflexive
Can I speak to herself for a moment? (herself: somebody in charge)
Double negative
I don´t want no soup.
Use of Them instead of those
1. Use of now as an intensifier
She had three children in five year now.

2. Use of never to refer to a single occasion

Overuse of the Definite article
You have to be the eighteen to get the licence.

Use of for to
Indication of purpose
Use of yes and no
Irish lacks words meaning yes and no.
Hiberno-English speakers use only the same verb in the question in the negative or affirmative form, often without yes or no.
"Are you coming home soon?" – "I am."
"Is your mobile charged?" – "It isn't."

Use of question tags introduced by so
It's raining, so it is
Use of will and shall
There is indiscriminate use of will and shall
Verbs: Perfective Aspect
Immediate perfective
After + V-ing (+ O)
They're after leaving off more than 20 workers

Resultative perfective
Object + Past Participle
She has the housework done.
Have you ‘Ulysses’ read?
Verbs: habitual aspect
This can be expressed in one of three ways: (i) by does + be or (ii) by bees (exclusively northern) or (iii) by inflectional -s, above all in the first and third persons (common on the east coast).
Durative habitual
I do be worrying about the children

In southern Irish English, the durative is expressed via do(es) be
She does be reading books

Iterative habitual
The kids bees up late at night (Northern Irish English)
They calls that part down there ’High Street"
In southern Irish English he iterative via the inflectional -s on lexical verb forms, i.e. with the latter do does not occur

14th century
the English colonists
were assimilated into
the Irish Culture.

late 15th century
The Pale

The Reformation in
Irish was the
first language of
50% of Ireland

Imposition of
the English language over
the population of Ireland
During the 19th century
the number of Irish speakers decreased
Introduction of the
universal English
language education
English became the language of two important institutions
the Catholic Church
the independence Movement
Before the 17th century:
Irish was the first language of all the Irish population
The Government of the Republic of Ireland starts a 20 year-long plan to make Ireland a bilingual country

Consonant Sounds
No /h/ dropping
/l/ is mostly realized as clear l
labio-velar glide
voiced /w/ and voiceless /hw/
-ing ending realized
with a final nasal velar / /
Happy tensing
Alpico alvelar fricative (slit t) at the end of words and between vowels.

The contrast between the dental fricatives and the alveolar plosives /t/ and /d/ tends to be lost sometimes (but not always).

Frequent Yod
/t/ + /j/ or
/d/ + /j/

Differences in the
stressed syllables
with respect to Standard English

Statutes of Kilkenny: All Englishmen in Ireland should use English surnames, speak English and follow English customs-or forfeit their lands.
Battle of the Boyne

Victory of "the Ascendancy" (Anglo-Irish ruling class)

Through the 18th century
English became increasingly dominant.
Anglo-Irish or Hiberno- English?
Anglo-Irish is the English of those whose ancestral mother tongue is English

Hiberno English
is the English of those whose ancestral mother tongue is Gaelic.
To keen
By 1900, 85% of Ireland´s population spoke English
(Irish accent)-
1689- actor Thomas Sheridan

From the the 16th century onwards many Irish began to emigrate to other countries.

Newfound land (first English speaking community in the world)



Ulster English was developed
from Lowland Scots and forms of Northern English which were taken to Ulster

East Coast (mostly) (verbs)

Lack of verbal inflection

Omission of verb "to be" in:

Existential sentences
Sentences in which the this verb is used as a linking verb
Sentences in which be is used as auxiliary

Omission of the verb "to have":
Cases in which this verb is used as a main verb.
Cases in which this verb is used as an auxiliary verb
Verb forms: am not
In Irish English,
is used as
the contraction of "am not".
"the Blarney"

the gift of eloquence
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