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Transcript of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland, Irish is the first official language and English is a second official language. 2% of the population use Irish.
In Northern Ireland, the official languages are: English, Irish and Ulster Scots. like the Republic of Ireland, the majority of the population uses English
The Celts arrive and settle in Ireland
Norman mercenaries invaded Ireland. The English
laid roots on Ireland.
Imposition of the English law
Under the rule of Henry VIII
Irish local chiefs who tried to resist the English rule were violently put down.
King Henry VIII is acknowledged as King of Ireland by the English people living in Ireland.
During the First Decades of the XVII Century
Britain's King James I sends thousands of Protestant English farmers and Presbyterian Scots and Welsh to Ireland to take over land owned by Catholic farmers, mostly in the north.
The Plantation scheme is applied in Ireland.
Saint Patrick Arrives.
New laws which forbade Catholics to vote, own land or practice their religion were enacted. Such laws remained in effect until 1829.
1803 Act of Union
The whole of Ireland becomes part of the United Kingdom.
"The United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland"
The Great Famine in Ireland
Decrease of population
Northern Ireland Republic of Ireland
(Ulster) (Irish Free State)
of Great Britain and
Gaelic is restored in the
Republic of Ireland
Gaelic becomes a national language
Gaelic is promoted in the educational system
The Troubles Northern Ireland
Mostly Catholics Mostly Protestants
They were in favour They were loyal to
of being part of the Great Britain
Republic of Ireland
Good Friday Agreement
The European Union recognizes Irish as
One of the official languages
Formularies instead of formalities
Declivity instead of Proclivity
Words and expressions that have special meanings in Irish
Bold (poorly behaved)
Gas (funny) You´re a gas man
you have some neck
Only (absolutely) This is only delicious.
wagon (a disagreeable woman)
Chalk and cheese (night and day) different as chalk and cheese
Zonks (ages) I haven´t seen you in zonks (mostly in Dublin)
On me tot (on my own) I don´t want to be left behind on me tot
Tasty (a job well done)
Cheers (hello, goodbye, thank you)
Words that are currently used in English, but came
Use of progressive aspect with the imperative mood
use of singular forms with plural subjects
The stairs is too deep for the patients
There was fifteen people there.
Let can be used with you
let you sit down.
The present simple shares uses with the present perfect.
I know him for more than six years now
Reduction of number of verb forms
Seen and done as preterite, went as past participle, also found with some other verbs like come and use.
I wonder why he done that.
I haven’t went there for a long time now.
She come up to see her aunt when she was dyin’.
Use of progressive aspect with stative verbs (epecially Southern Irish)
1. And can be used with the meaning of: although, while, when.
2. Till can be used with the meaning of "in order that"
It was very well that he looked
the addition of /əz/ to existing plurals which end in -s.
2.Nouns indicating time and measure are not inflected for plural.
1. The second person singular takes two distinct forms:
ye, ya (singular)
youse, yes (plural)
2. Speakers of Irish English dialects in the North (including Ulster Scots) and South tend to avoid the use of Wh-relative pronouns. That, and and zero are employed more often.
3. Reflexive pronouns
emphatic form of the nominative
It is myself that wrote the letter
Can I speak to herself for a moment? (herself: somebody in charge)
I don´t want no soup.
Use of Them instead of those
1. Use of now as an intensifier
She had three children in five year now.
2. Use of never to refer to a single occasion
Overuse of the Definite article
You have to be the eighteen to get the licence.
Use of for to
Indication of purpose
Use of yes and no
Irish lacks words meaning yes and no.
Hiberno-English speakers use only the same verb in the question in the negative or affirmative form, often without yes or no.
"Are you coming home soon?" – "I am."
"Is your mobile charged?" – "It isn't."
Use of question tags introduced by so
It's raining, so it is
Use of will and shall
There is indiscriminate use of will and shall
Verbs: Perfective Aspect
After + V-ing (+ O)
They're after leaving off more than 20 workers
Object + Past Participle
She has the housework done.
Have you ‘Ulysses’ read?
Verbs: habitual aspect
This can be expressed in one of three ways: (i) by does + be or (ii) by bees (exclusively northern) or (iii) by inflectional -s, above all in the first and third persons (common on the east coast).
I do be worrying about the children
In southern Irish English, the durative is expressed via do(es) be
She does be reading books
The kids bees up late at night (Northern Irish English)
They calls that part down there ’High Street"
In southern Irish English he iterative via the inflectional -s on lexical verb forms, i.e. with the latter do does not occur
the English colonists
were assimilated into
the Irish Culture.
late 15th century
The Reformation in
Irish was the
first language of
50% of Ireland
the English language over
the population of Ireland
During the 19th century
the number of Irish speakers decreased
Introduction of the
English became the language of two important institutions
the Catholic Church
the independence Movement
Before the 17th century:
Irish was the first language of all the Irish population
The Government of the Republic of Ireland starts a 20 year-long plan to make Ireland a bilingual country
No /h/ dropping
/l/ is mostly realized as clear l
voiced /w/ and voiceless /hw/
-ing ending realized
with a final nasal velar / /
Alpico alvelar fricative (slit t) at the end of words and between vowels.
The contrast between the dental fricatives and the alveolar plosives /t/ and /d/ tends to be lost sometimes (but not always).
/t/ + /j/ or
/d/ + /j/
Differences in the
with respect to Standard English
Statutes of Kilkenny: All Englishmen in Ireland should use English surnames, speak English and follow English customs-or forfeit their lands.
Battle of the Boyne
Victory of "the Ascendancy" (Anglo-Irish ruling class)
Through the 18th century
English became increasingly dominant.
Anglo-Irish or Hiberno- English?
Anglo-Irish is the English of those whose ancestral mother tongue is English
is the English of those whose ancestral mother tongue is Gaelic.
By 1900, 85% of Ireland´s population spoke English
1689- actor Thomas Sheridan
From the the 16th century onwards many Irish began to emigrate to other countries.
Newfound land (first English speaking community in the world)
Ulster English was developed
from Lowland Scots and forms of Northern English which were taken to Ulster
East Coast (mostly) (verbs)
Lack of verbal inflection
Omission of verb "to be" in:
Sentences in which the this verb is used as a linking verb
Sentences in which be is used as auxiliary
Omission of the verb "to have":
Cases in which this verb is used as a main verb.
Cases in which this verb is used as an auxiliary verb
Verb forms: am not
In Irish English,
is used as
the contraction of "am not".
the gift of eloquence