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Historical Relationships-SAC 1 Jordan Rosewarne
Transcript of Historical Relationships-SAC 1 Jordan Rosewarne
The to frequents burning off by In digenous people may be responsible for the many grasslands and woodlands present when the Europeans arrived. Scientists say that the changes caused by fire-stick farming caused the extinction of the Australian mega fauna.
Nature itself provided the aboriginal calendar to them. Blossoms stars, temperatue and seasonal conditions affected their movement from one place to another. The calendar was essential for survival and the organisation of Aboriginals lives.
There semi-nomadic lifestyle and interaction reflected their perception that they were part of the land as they lived with it and showed their intimate bond relationship with the environment.
Through their semi-nomadic interactions they never left much impact as they were always moving constantly and only took from the environment what they needed.
One interaction that our guide Gerry showed us on our trip to the Knob reserve Stratford was the trees from which early indigenous people had carved canoes to hunt and gather. This involved carving canoes from trees to use for hunting fish. This reflected there perception that they were part of the environment and that they could use the environment to help them survive they believed if they helped the environment it would help them. This showed thier strong positive relationship with the land. Although the impacts of canoe trees can be seen today the carving of the canoe from the tree did not kill the tree. The evidence of occupation at the Knob of early indigenous people can be seen through the grinding sites and canoe trees our guide Gerry showed us on our trip to the Stratford Knob The five tribes of the Gunai/Kurnai people were:
Bratowooloong - They were the people in South Gippsland. From Cape Liptrap and Tarwin Meadows east to mouth of Merriman Creek; inland to about Mirboo; at Port Albert and Wilsons Promontory.
Brayakuloong - They were around the current site of Sale. Providence Ponds, Avon and Latrobe rivers; west of Lake Wellington to Mounts Baw Baw and Howitt.
Brabuwooloong - People in Central Gippsland. Mitchell, Nicholson, and Tambo rivers; south to about Bairnsdale and Bruthen.
Tatungoloong - people near Lakes Entrance on the coast. Along Ninety Mile Beach and about Lakes Victoria and Wellington from Lakes Entrance southwest to mouth of Merriman Creek, also on Raymond Island in Lake King.
Krauatungalung - people near Snowy River. Cape Everard (Point Hicks) to Lakes Entrance; on Cann, Brodribb, Buchan, and Snowy rivers; inland to about Black Mountain.
The bunurong tribe also shared some of the Gunia/Kurnai land. Contemporary indigenous people are now in educational roles informing people on the heritage of Indigenous people and they also play role of park rangers working with DSE programs and parks Victoria to protect the environment. Also work with museum groups to protect indigenous heritage. They aim to inform the public of the indigenous culture and lifestyle and to preserve its identity. They pass on knowledge to the general public of areas and past indigenous inhabitants. Their perceptions are still the same that they do not own the land, they are spirually connected and have high respect for the land but their interactions were different they did not use traditional heritage interactions like hunting and gathering, firestick farming, seasonal movements but interacted more through education and protection of the aboriginal heritage and working with bodies to protect the environment. Through the Aboriginals use of conservation zones/areas it allowed animals to reproduce in these areas without being hunted. Degrading environments were protected due to the Aboriginals beliefs from dreaming that the environment needed protecting. Animal overflow in these conservation areas meant that Aboriginals had more animals to hunt in outer areas and impacted less on the population of species this had a positive impact on species numbers as Aboriginals would only hunt if the animal was utside the zone. Early Explorers had the perception of "Terra nullius; free to take had no owners."(black,2002" and that they “own” the land. They had a fascination with the environment. Early European explorers perceived the “ concept , that the land was owned or possessed by nobody” (Public land, Private land and Outdoor environmental studies.)
Early Settlers percieved the environment as harsh and hostile and needed to be tamed. They struggled to understand how the Aboriginals lived in the environment.” Early exploeres had a fascination relationship with the environment and a eagerness to learn more about it. As shown by Joseph Banks on Captain James Cook’s expedition in 1770 he was amazed by the vast landscape, unusual vegetation and exotic animals. This fascination and eagerness was reflected by their minimal impacts and small parties not wanting and made trails to see more of this fascinating environment. This also reflected heir perception that the Australian environment was strange and unique. The perceptions of Early indigenous Australians were that no one owned or posessed. “Terra Nullius was the legal term used to describe land tenure in Australia from the time of the first fleet” it meant free to take had no owners, they “own” the land. Early non-indigenous settlers saw the land as being possesed and for its resource and agricultural yield. Farming
Introduced Farming animals from Britain such as the cow and sheep compacted the land from their hard hooves and also eroded it from animals and clearing for farms.
Farming caused over grazing and farming animals competed with native species for food and habitat causing extinction. Waterways were also heavily polluted from cows and there erosion. This represented their lack of understanding relationship with environment as they believed the practices they had used at "home" would work in Australia.
Early Settlers established settlements for living which they cleared lands for and created fences
this effected finding food for animals and a decrease in habitats for native species.
This reflected there little respect relationship for the environment and their struggle to understand the aboriginal way of life by intoducing same lifestyle as home,England. Cow
Compacted and eroded the ground through its hard hooves. Polluted water through erosion,over grazed on food destroying habitats and competing with native species for food. And also land was cleared and habitats lost for the fencing of these animals.
-clearing of trees increased salinity levels.
-Loss of whale and seal species from whaling and sealing.
-more emissions created in atmosphere due to industry increase.
-fragmentation of forest from logging.
-Loss of native species and habitat from mining and clearing for mines.
-Diversion of water from canvas or settlement towns.
The interactions of the Gold rush such as mining, sealing and whaling and farming reflected their perception that the environment was very much a resource to be used and exploited for profit. Their widespread damaging impacts such as pollution, compaction and loss of species reflected money making relationship with the environment. At federation there was a gradual change to the perception that the land was a natural beauty that needed to be protected. A “lavish land”, “opal hearted country” “beauty” (Dorothea McKellar, 1904) that needed to be valued. This occured because of a need to value the environment for its resources as they were beginning to show impacts. There was a mixed perception and relationship with the environment in the 20th century it was conserved but also used as a resource. This perception of conservation brought the introduction of environmental groups but the continuation using the environment as a resource still saw farming and timber use. In early days of Australian logging the management of local forests lay in the hands of saw millers as long as they paid their annual license’s. Their methods were very wasteful often without regard for the environment and had no sustainability about it for the future. They often logged old growth trees. In years to come the government realised that the forests were being logged at to greater rate so they employed restrictions, regulations and laws to prevent over-logging and logging of old growth trees. Logging was also made more sustainable for the future with the timber being harvested also being replanted and replaced. This displayed mixed perceptions of conservation and resource of the 20th century. A government initiave employed restrictions, regulations and laws to prevent over-logging and logging of old growth forests. Timber harvesting impacted on the environment negatively with a loss of biodiversity and habitat, fragmentation of forests, poisons entering waterways and the introduction of weeds and removal of native flora. It also had a positive effect as timber could be used as a resource to make things such as paper, tissue, cardboard, furniture and many other products.
Nowadays the introduction of protected old growth timber areas has reduced the harvesting of them and the replanting and replacing of timber harvested has made the timber harvesting practice more sustainable for the future.
The Tasmanian Wilderness Society was formed in 1976 as a result of the HEC(Hydro Electricity Company) plan to dam Lake Pedder in Tasmania. This was the beginning point of the Franklin campaign fight to stop the damming of Lake Pedder in Tasmania between 1966 and 1973 one which was lost in 1973. (http://www.wilderness.org.au/campaigns/wild-rivers/franklin) , March 18th 2011
The main force behind the construction of the dam, the HEC, which had enormous political power and a wealthy budget. The HEC then planned to dam the Franklin River. The Wilderness Society then mounted pressure on the Tasmanian Government to protect the Franklin river. The federal ALP then adopted a policy of saving the Franklin and when Prime Minister Malcom Fraser called an election Labor's Bob Hawke won easily. Hawke then stopped the proceeding of the dam. Tasmanian Premier defied the federal Governemnt and continued work on the dam. The federal government then brought in both regulations and legislation to stop the dam. This was challenged in the High Court by Premier Gray. It was found that the Commonwealth Government had the power to stop the dam and work was stopped.
The Tasmanian Wilderness Society led by Dr Bob Brown and many other protestors were opposing the HEC's (Hydro Electricity Company) and the Tasmanian Government's damming of Lake Pedder and their plan to dam the Franklin River. The current Federal Government at the time and Prime Minister Malcom Fraser agreed with the HEC's and Tasmanian Governments plan whilst Labor opposition leader Bob Hawke opposed the plan. The dispute was mainly over preserving the wilderness rather hydro industrialisation the perception by the Wilderness Society that the environment needed to be preserved and looked after was the reason they challenged the HEC and the Tasmanian Government.
As a result of Bob Brown’s and the Wilderness Society's national campaigns involving celebrities, colour publications, slide shows, public meetings and guide books pressure mounted on the Tasmanian Government to protect the Franklin river. The historical development of the Wilderness society made the Australian population more aware of these natural environments. It gave Australians a greater care and understanding of the land. It was this perception change that created a greater appreciation of native land/animals and their environments and more conflicts for land use.
A change in perceptions with the 20th Century brought greater care and understanding of the land and more value and importance. There were a variety of perceptions that affected peoples interactions like logging and damming or creation of national parks as a result of their relationships such as conservation or resource and differing views of the environment. It was these differing views and perceptions that created conflicts and created environmental movements to stop destroying of natural environments. With Federation brought a change of Art due to a change in perceptions and relationships
and a greater care and understanding of the land. This created a worshipping relationship and the paintings of Dorothea McKellar and her perception of Australia being a "lavish land" reflected this. This change in art displayed a greater appreciation of the environment. Our guide Alistair told us on our vist to the Wonthaggi Coal Mine of the benefits of the mining of Quartz in the coal mine and how its used in the construction of roads around the town to compensate the growing size and population. He also mentioned the financial benefits of selling coal to be burnt and used as a resource.